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- More than 35 million culturally linguistically diverse (CLD) speakers in U.S.
- Approximately 7 million children speak English as a second language
- More immigrants from economically poor countries with poorer educations
Children with Language Difference rates
Children who are CLD have a higher drop out rate. They are less successful in school. They are over represented in programs for the disabled and less likely to be identified as gifted.
Continuum of English Proficiency
- Bilingual English Proficiency
- Limited English Proficiency LEP
- Limited Proficiency in both English and the native language
Bilingual English Proficiency
- This means that they are proficient in their own language and in English.
- We don't work with this group.
Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
This group is proficient in their native language but not in English
This group is over identified as needing services.
Limited Proficiency in both English & the native language
- This group has limited proficiency in both their first and second language
- We need to work with this group.
Access to Appropriate Assessments & Interventions
- Primary reason for referral for possible special education placement is difficulty with English
- (this is not fair)
- SLP role is to distinguish disorder from difference
- (difference is not disorder)
- Assessments should be conducted in the native language
- (if it is truly the dominant language)
- Assessments should establish language dominance & the most appropriate language for intervention
BIC – Basic language proficiency
CAL – Cognitive Academic Language proficiency
Research shows that it takes 5-7 years to acquire CAL. BUT teachers refer students for special needs after a maximum of two years.
EVERY DIALECT IS EQUALLY AS SOPHISTICATED AS THE DIALECT THAT YOU SPEAK.
- Is a shared framework of meanings within which a population shapes its way of life.
- Is what one needs to know or believe to function in a manner acceptable to a particular group.
- Is pervasive & diffused throughout your life.
Cultural sensitivity requires
not only recognition of one’s own culture but also examination of cultural notions held as “truths.”
Guidelines for Interacting with Clients from Different Cultures
- Each encounter is subject to cultural rules governing such events by both participants.
- Children perform differently because of unique cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
- Different modes, channels, and functions of communication may evidence differing levels of linguistic and communicative performance.
- Ethnographic techniques and cultural norms should be used for evaluating behavior.
- Possible sources of conflict should be identified prior to an interaction and action taken to prevent them. Learning about culture is ongoing.
African American dialect variations do not begin to show until age 3 but by age 5 they are very evident.
Speaking another dialect should not impact your ability to understand different dialects.
One way to learn the culture is to...
- live the culture.
- Go to events that are being held.
- Ethnography is when you sit and study a culture and document it.
Expand Your Knowledge
- Learn the contrastive influences between other languages and dialects and SAE.
- Learn high-usage words and forms of greetings
- There is much heterogeneity in cultures.
- We need to play a role in teaching teachers the cultural differences.
It is unethical to..
put a child in treatment if their language is different (not disordered) unless the parent comes and enrolls their child.
Building Your Cultural Knowledge - One Example
- Understanding the participation of African-American parents in special education (Harry, 1992)
- –Need stronger balance of power
- Some of the challenges:
- –View African-American Children as having deficits –Professionals initiate less contacts with parents
- –Professionals treat low-income, minority parents as if they need to be “trained” or “educated”
Potential Inhibitors to African American Parent Participation
- They may be:
- –Interpreted as lacking trust
- –Viewed as apathetic toward education
- –Constrained by life circumstances
- –In disagreement regarding SPED classifications
- Problems with scheduling, lack of transportation, and lack of understanding/knowledge of the IEP process.
- When parents disagreed with SPED classifications it led to greater communication problems and the specialists viewed the parents as being in denial.
- African American parents may just have a bigger understanding of the typical development of the child in the culture.
- They are more likely to trust you if you include them, let them know that you understand the culture, and clearly articulate what the disorder is.
Parental Roles that Could Equalize Power
- Include parents in:
- –assessment & placement
- –policy making
- –advocacy for their child
Important Cultural Features
- child-rearing practices
- family structure
- attitudes toward language impairment & intervention
- communication style
Individual Differences Within Children
- Range and frequency of dialectal forms vary.
- Most children are sequential bilingual learners
- Interference is the effect that one language has on learning another.
- The “age stage” model is inappropriate for people who are learning the language.
- Also rate of learning is an inappropriate measure because there are so many things that can impact this. It can be impacted by the language spoken at home, the age of the child, the support in learning from the parents or school, and many more.
Individual Differences Within Children
- Semilingualism – Immature L1 prior to acquisition of L2
- Many individual factors impact L2 competency (e.g., intelligence, learning style, parental attitudes)
- Semilingual does not necessarily mean that their speech is disordered.
- Semilingualism – they fail to become proficient in either language
- They can become delayed in L1 after they have been exposed in L2 if L2 is dominant.
Overcoming Bias in Assessment
- Goal – Differentiate difficulties resulting from experiential/cultural factors vs. those related to language impairments (LI)
- If LI, the child may have greater difficulty: –Expressing themselves
- –Establishing greetings & maintaining conversations
- –Listening to a speaker
- –Cueing a topic change
Avoiding Assessment Bias – Questions to Ask Yourself
- Other variables that might explain difficulties with English?
- Similar problems exhibited in L1?
- Problems related to L2 acquisition or dialect differences?
- Problems explained by cross-cultural interference?
- Problems explained by any bias effect?
- Systematicity or consistency to the linguistic problems exhibited that might suggest an underlying rule?
Use of Interpreters
- Utilize family members if needed
- Better performance with family examiners
- Three critical factors:
- –Relationship to the family
- See list of 15 suggestions for working successfully with an interpreter (page 106)
Must be competent in L1 and L2. They should be able to do exact translations both ways. They need to know the terminology for our field. They must maintain confidentiality. You want an interpreter that the family can trust.
Lack of Appropriate Assessment Tools
- Few, if any, nonbiased standardized language tests for bidelectal & bilingual children
- Court ruling – Use of tests that have inappropriate norming populations are not valid
- These are NOT appropriate for children who are culturally different.
- Two families have sued and won because the decisions made on those children were inappropriate because the tests were not culturally sensitive.
5 Guidelines Prior to Using Standardized Tests with CLD
- 1.Relationship of the norming population & the client. Fair representation. Separate norms.
- 2.Relationship of the child’s experience & the content areas of the test.
- 3.Relationship of the language and/or dialect being used.
- 4.Test’s use of idiomatic or metaphoric language.
- 5.Penalty for a particular pattern of learning or style of problem solving.
- Processes = the mental operations that manipulate linguistic material
- Majority and CLD children do not differ in performance on process-based tests.
- Possible Tasks
- –Nonword vocal repetition
- –Completion of 2 language tasks simultaneously
- –Following directions
Integrated Assessment Model
- Key Question: Is this child an effective communicator in his or her context?
- Data Collection:
- –Referral from classroom teachers
- –Parent report
- –SLP Observation
- –Language Sampling
- We don’t want to use norm referenced we want to use communication referenced.
4 Measures Discriminating Spanish-Speaking Children with LI
- Parent reporting
- Family history of speech & language problems
- Number of errors per T-unit
- Mean length of T-unit
- Focus on ability to communicate & learn
- Tasks are interactive & focused on learning
- Interested in ability to respond to learning experiences & to change behavior
- Children who are not language impaired will be able to learn and change.
Three Methods of Dynamic Assessment
- Testing the limits
- –Probing beyond child’s response
- Graduated Prompting
- –Manipulating prompts to determine level of support needed
- –Establish baseline, provide instruction with supports, note child’s ability to change & respond to supports –Mediated learning experience – Individualized approach to the response & strategies used by child & includes explaining importance of learning & giving evaluative feedback
Children with Dialect Differences
- Gather similar data
- Utilize family & community members
- Utilize child-centered sampling
- Recognize potential for variability across language tasks
- Focus on non-dialectal components of sample
- Dialects only show up about 20% of the time on samples.