Science_Interactions_C2

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bantter1
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187639
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Science_Interactions_C2
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2012-12-07 14:43:14
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Interactions Matter
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Interactions of Matter Chapter 2
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  1. What is a chemical bond?
    A force that holds two atoms together in a molecule.
  2. What is a CHEMICAL REACTION?
    a process in which one or more substances change to make one or more new substances.
  3. For a chemical reaction to take place, what 2 things must occur to the bonds?
    The old bonds must break and the new bonds must form.
  4. Give EXAMPLES of chemical reactions
    Autumn leaves and baking bread
  5. Distinguish the properties of substances before and after a chemical reaction.
    Products have new properties that are different from reactants.
  6. What are the SIGNS of chemical reactions?
    Gas formation, precipitate formation, color change, light, sound, heat, smell.
  7. What is the sure sign that a chemical reaction to take place?
    the formation of a new substance.
  8. What must happen in order for a chemical reaction to take place?
    original bonds must break and new bonds form.
  9. What is a CHEMICAL FORMULA?
    a shorthand way to use chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance.
  10. What is a SUBSCRIPT?
    a number written below and to the right of a chemical symbol in a formula telling how many atoms are present. If there is no subscript then only one atom of that element is present.
  11. What usually makes up a covalent bond?
    2 nonmetals
  12. What are the prefixes and meanings used in the names of covalent molecules?
    mono 1, di 2, tri 3, tetra 4, penta 5, hexa 6, hepta 7, octa 8, nona 9, deca 10
  13. What usually makes up an Ionic Compound?
    A metal and a nonmetal
  14. What's the trick for figuring out the checmical formula for a named Ionic Compound (like Berillium Chloride) ?
    Overall charge must be neutral, so adjust the subscripts to cause the charge to be zero.
  15. True of false: The names of Covalent Compounds can use prefixes whereas the names of Ionic Compounds do not.
    True
  16. What is a CHEMICAL EQUATION?
    uses chemical symbols and formulas as a shortcut to describe a chemical reaction.
  17. What are the REACTANTS?
    the starting materials (left side)
  18. What are the PRODUCTS?
    the substances formed from the reaction (right side)
  19. Who discovered the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS?
    Lavoisier (the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products).
  20. What is the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS?
    mass is neither created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes.
  21. How do you balance a checmical equation?
    Count the atoms of each element in the reactants and in the products. Then add any coefficients to the reactants to represent this balance.
  22. Describe a SYNTHESIS REACTION
    a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form one new compound.
  23. Describe a DECOMPOSITION REACTION
    a reaction in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances (opposite of synthesis).
  24. Describe a SINGLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION
    a reaction in which one element or radical takes the place of another element or radical in a compound
  25. Describe a DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION
    a reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound forms from the exchange of ions between two compounds “trade partners”
  26. What is an EXOTHERMIC REACTION?
    gives off energy (example: heat).  Energy is released. Energy is a product. Right side.
  27. What is an ENDOTHERMIC REACTION?
    takes in energy (example: heat). Energy is required. Energy is written as a reactant. Left side.
  28. What is the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY?
    A law that states that energy is neither created or destroyed, however energy can change form.
  29. Who discovered is the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY?
    We didn't learn this.
  30. What is a RATE OF REACTION? 
    speed at which new particles form.
  31. A reaction can only take place if the __________  of the _________  collide with each other.
    A reaction can only take place if the particles of the reactants collide with each other.
  32. There must be enough  _________  to break the bonds that hold the particles together.
    There must be enough  energy to break the bonds that hold the particles together.
  33. What is ACTIVATION ENERGY?
    the smallest amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
  34. What are SOURCES OF ACTIVATION ENERGY?
    Friction, electric spark, light.
  35. Name the factors that INCREASE THE RATES OF REACTION. 
    Temperature increase, high concentration, surface area increase, catalyst.
  36. What is a factor that DECREASES THE RATE OF REACTIONS? 
    Inhibitors
  37. Give two common examples of inhibitors
    Preservatives in food, and some antibiotics.
  38. What is a catalyst?
    A substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up or changed very much.
  39. Is a catalyst a reactant?
    No, it's on the left-side but it is not a reactant since it doesn't change.
  40. How does a catalyst speedup a reaction?
    A catalyst lower the activation energy so the reaction happens more quickly.
  41. Give two examples of a catalyst.
    Enzymes in the body and the catalytic convertor in a car.
  42. Describe an energy diagram?
    A plot with Energy on the y-axis and time on the x-axis. It shows who the energy of a reaction changes with time.
  43. What is the difference between an exothermic and endothermic energy diagram?
    • Exothermic: line starts in middle of y-axis, goes up, then down close to x-axis.
    • Endothermic: line starts close to x-axis, goes way up and then down to middle of y-axis.
  44. What is an inhibitor?
    a substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction
  45. What type of chemical reaction is this?
    2 Na + Cl2 --> 2NaCl + energy
    Exothermic since energy is given off.
  46. What type of chemical reaction is this?
    2H2O  + energy  -->  2H2 + O2
    Endothermic reactin since energy is required.
  47. Distinguish between a chemical symbol, a chemical formula and a chemical equation.
    • Symbol: H
    • Formula: H2O
    • Equation: 2H2O  + energy  -->  2H2 + O2
  48. What is a percipitate?
    A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution.
  49. What type of reaction is: A + B --> AB ?
    Synthesis reaction
  50. What type of reaction is: AB  --> A + B ?
    Decomposition reaction
  51. What type of reaction is: A + BC --> AC + B ?
    Single Displacement reaction
  52. What type of reaction is: AB + CD --> AC + BD ?
    Double displacement reaction
  53. Draw an exothermic reaction energy diagram and label the energy released and the activation energy.
    • activation energy (from start to top of diagram)
    • energy release (from start to bootom of diagram)
  54. Draw an endothermic reaction energy diagram and label the energy absorbed and the activation energy.
    • Activation energy: from start to top of diagram.
    • Energy absorbed: from start to end of diagram.
  55. S, D, SR or DR?
    S8 + F2 -->  SF8
    S (Synthesis)
  56. S, D, SR or DR?
    HgO -- > Hg + O
    D (Decomposition)
  57. S, D, SR or DR?
    HgO + Cl2 --> HgCl + O2
    SR (Single Replacement)
  58. S, D, SR or DR?
    BaCl2 + Na2SO4 -->  NaCl  + BaSO4
    DR (Double Displacement)
  59. Balance:  Ca  +  O2  ---->  CaO
    2Ca  +  O2  ---->  2CaO
  60. Balance:  N2 +   H2  --->  NH3
     N2 +   3H2  --->  2NH3
  61. Balance: Na  +  HCl  ---> H +  NaCl
    2Na  +  2HCl  ---> H2  +  2NaCl
  62. How many atoms are in 5H2
    10
  63. What is a coeffient in a chemical equation?
    A number placed before a chemical symbol.
  64. How many of each atom in  2Na2SO4
    • Na: 4
    • S: 2
    • O: 8
  65. Balance: Mg + Cl2 -->  MgCl2
    Already balanced
  66. To balance a chemical equation, you must add _________  in front of the chemical ________ in the equation.
    To balance a chemical equation, you must add coefficents in front of the chemical symbols or formulas  in the equation.
  67. Give 3 descriptions of the law of conservation of mass
    • Mass can not be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical or physical changes.
    • The mass of the reactions will equal the mass of the products.
    • Atoms are not created or destroyed during a chemical reactrion.
  68. Give the chemical  formula for Dinitrogen Monoxide
    N2O
  69. Give the chemical formula for: Calcium Oxide
    CaO
  70. Give the chemical formula for Lithium Nitride
    Li3N
  71. Give the chemical formula for Potassium Sulfide
    K2S
  72. Balance:   Al  +  O2  --->  Al2O3
    4 Al  + 3 O2 ---> 2 Al2O3
  73. Give the chemical formula for Caesium Floride
    CsF
  74. What is a radical?
    An ion made up of more than one atom. (ex: OH−  ... Hydroxide)

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