CDO 340 Ch11

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Author:
shanamd2011
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187640
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CDO 340 Ch11
Updated:
2012-12-06 19:54:24
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Intervention Techniques
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Intervention Techniques
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  1. Intervention Techniques
    • “What’s the point.” criterion
    • 1st treatment targets – Greatest impact on overall ability to function as a communicator
    • Appropriate & successful across populations
    • Consider generalization
  2. Pragmatic Intervention
    • Important for social acceptance!
    • Age-specific
    • -Academic & personal-social success
    • -Vocational success
    • Start intervention at the point of breakdown
    • -Peer to peer conflict or adult to student
    • -Personal or vocational
    • Train in a functional context
    • Highly verbal & fast-paced peer interactions are real life situations!
  3. Some techniques for Pragmatic Intervention
    • Authentic activities (real & play)
    • Role-playing – favorite pragmatic program Conversations by Barbara Hotskins
    • Videotaping
    • Re-enact stories
    • Descriptive games
  4. Children have a better understanding of narrative story structure and not expository text structure.
  5. Pragmatics – Communicative Functions
    • Calling attention - Initiating to get something
    • Requests for action - Get somebody to do something
      These all go back to social closeness. A child that has severe disabilities being able to gain attention is extremely motivating.
      Requests for information - Want to know something
    • Requests for objects - Want access to a specific object
    • This can lend itself to good choice making – use motivating and deep choices. Use two things that they really want, make them choose, and make them live with the choice.
    • Responding to requests - Providing information following partner request
    • Reward that they responded to a request. – may want to provide them with cues to remind them to respond to requests.
    • Statements - Contributing information during conversations, discussions, sharing

    Know what you are working on and let the other stuff go.
  6. Pragmatics – Conversation
    • Topic Initiation
    • -Understand purpose for communicating
    • -Gain attention
    • -Access to topics
    • Topic Maintenance
    • -Use turnabouts (comment + cue to respond)
    • -Assist in maintaining attention with questions & prompts to highlight key semantic cues
    • -Practice across contexts
    • -Use cues to seek additional information & to assist in sequencing events
    • Topic Duration
    • -Consider incessant talker, off-topic responses, redundant or too little information
    • Turntaking
    • -Begin at nonverbal level
    • -Later – Turnabouts & question-answer
    • -Teach nonlinguistic cues & attention getting devices
    • Repair
    • -Teach active listening behaviors
    • -Teach to monitor for inadequate signals (loudness, rate, noise), content inadequacies, comprehension breakdown
    • -Teach to request clarification
  7. Pragmatics – Facilitating Story Grammars
    • Involve children in organized activities
    • Use scripted play that gradually become more variable and less contextualized
    • Help children move from activities to linguistic organization through narratives with clearly structure story grammars & having them dramatize stories
  8. Pragmatics – Narration
    • Utilize scripted play
    • Assist in progression to fairy tails or own stories
    • Use questions to support more sophisticated forms
    • Read & tell real-life stories with clear scripts
  9. Choosing Books to Support Narrative Development
    • Familiar event scripts
    • Pictures that support the episode
    • Clearly sequenced episodes
    • Appropriate length & language level
    • Stories “pretested” for retelling by the SLP
  10. Pragmatics - Cohesion
    • Lexical Cohesion - Difficult to measure & is individualized
    • Conjunctive Reference - Start with conjunctions omitted or used inappropriately
    • Referential Cohesion - Designating old & new information with nouns, pronouns, & articles
  11. Semantics
    • Vocabulary
    • -Build background knowledge & vocabulary through authentic experiences
    • -Draw from child’s prior knowledge & link
    • -Teach in meaningful contexts
    • -Provide multiple exposures
  12. l2 phases of vocabulary acquisition
    • Fast mapping
    • Complete map through repeated exposure
  13. Using Context to Establish Meaning
    • Temporal (time)
    • Spatial (location)
    • Value (relative worth)
    • Stative descriptive (physical description)
    • Functional descriptive (use)
    • Causal (cause & effect)
    • Class membership (type)
    • Equivalence (similiarity/difference)
  14. Word Meanings
    • Utilize prototype – I say furniture you say “couch” so couch is a prototype
    • Encourage description of features
    • Identify similarities & differences
    • Use target words/concepts from home

    • lChoose words based on
    • -Frequency of use
    • -Typical development
    • -Need within classroom & use in texts
    • -Likelihood of the child learning the word from context alone
  15. Word Meanings
    • Teach synonyms (mean the same) & antonyms (opposites), & homonyms (sound the same)
    • Target syllabification
    • Analyze semantic features of words
    • Concrete to abstract meanings
    • -Contextualized to less contextualized
    • -Figurative to abstract
    • Word roots, prefixes, & suffixes
  16. Semantic Classes
    • Allow us to understand the variety of meanings a child can express
    • Teach children to understand, identify & use a  range of meanings
    • Example:
    •    Who is ____?
    •    He is ____ (nominative case)

    See Table 11.4 for more examples
  17. Semantics – Relational Words
    • Relational words
    • -Quantitative (e.g., one & more than one)
    • -Qualitative (e.g., bigger, tallest, as big as)
    • -Spatial (e.g., in, on, at, by)
    • -Conjunctions (e.g., and, because)
    • Acquire relational words in descriptive & narrative tasks
  18. Semantics – Word Retrieval
    Determine
    Storage or retrieval problem?
  19. Semantics Word Retrieval
    Treatment
    • elaboration training
    • mnemonic/key word strategy
    • pictures and written descriptions
    • semantic organizational strategies
  20. Semantic - word retrieval
    semantic organizational strategies
    • categorization - name members of a category
    • semantic mapping
    • word/picture/object sorting
    • attribute chart
  21. Semantics word retrieval
    • teach child strategies to circumvent
    • compensatory programming - modify tasks
  22. Syntax Intervention
    • Train in conversation – Keep in context
    • Control vocabulary & sentence length
    • Monitor metalinguistic demands
    • Have realistic expectations – Don’t expect error free production immediately
  23. Morphology
    • 1.Teach inflectional suffixes in conversation
    •      - ed, -ing, -s (plural), -s (3rd person), ‘s) possession)
    • 2.Derivational suffixes – teach explicitly
    •       -able, -er. – est, -less
    • 3.Prefixes – teach explicitly
    •       pro-, bi-
  24. Verb Tense
    • Tx sequence - Protoverbs (up, in, off, down, no, bye-bye), general purpose do, specific action verbs, present progressive, past tense, to be, future, copulas, auxiliary verbs, particles
    • Teach in everyday activities
    • -What are we doing? What did we do? What will we do?
    • Play facilitates verb usage – Child knows the event sequence (has a mental representation) & can focus on communication
  25. Pronouns
    • Teach concept then model
    • Developmental order – Subjective pronouns (I, you, he/she)
    • Next -  Objective pronouns (me, you) &  Reflexive pronouns (myself)
    • For I/you use a 2nd person – helps child with frame of
    • reference
  26. Plurals
    1st need concept of  one & more than one
  27. Articles
    • Mark - Definite (the) & indefinite (a), new (a) & old (the)
    • Use objects & pictures & have the child describe what is seen
  28. Prepositions
    • Nine most common (90%) – at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with
    • Needs to understand concept separate from referent
  29. Word Order & Sentence Types
    • Younger - Teach word order in conversation
    • Teach a range of combinations
    • Tx order – Noun phrases, adjectives, verb phrases
    • School-age – Oral & in writing
    •    Target longer & more concise sentences
    •    Build compound & complex sentences from child’s simple sentences
    •    More ideas on Table 7.16

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