1st treatment targets – Greatest impact on overall ability to function as a communicator
Appropriate & successful across populations
Important for social acceptance!
-Academic & personal-social success
Start intervention at the point of breakdown
-Peer to peer conflict or adult to student
-Personal or vocational
Train in a functional context
Highly verbal & fast-paced peer interactions are real life situations!
Some techniques for Pragmatic Intervention
Authentic activities (real & play)
Role-playing – favorite pragmatic program Conversations by Barbara Hotskins
Children have a better understanding of narrative story structure and not expository text structure.
Pragmatics – Communicative Functions
Calling attention - Initiating to get something
Requests for action - Get somebody to do somethingThese all go back to social closeness. A child that has severe disabilities being able to gain attention is extremely motivating.Requests for information - Want to know something
Requests for objects - Want access to a specific object
This can lend itself to good choice making – use motivating and deep choices. Use two things that they really want, make them choose, and make them live with the choice.
Responding to requests - Providing information following partner request
Reward that they responded to a request. – may want to provide them with cues to remind them to respond to requests.
Statements - Contributing information during conversations, discussions, sharing
Know what you are working on and let the other stuff go.
Pragmatics – Conversation
-Understand purpose for communicating
-Access to topics
-Use turnabouts (comment + cue to respond)
-Assist in maintaining attention with questions & prompts to highlight key semantic cues
-Practice across contexts
-Use cues to seek additional information & to assist in sequencing events
-Consider incessant talker, off-topic responses, redundant or too little information