Pathology FINAL

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Author:
gecrouch88
ID:
187649
Filename:
Pathology FINAL
Updated:
2012-12-06 21:34:38
Tags:
GI System Male Female Reproductive Syst
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Description:
GI System, Male/Female Reproductive Syst
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  1. What makes up the upper GI system?
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • duodenum
  2. What percentage of immune cells are found in the GI system?
    70-80%
  3. What makes up the lower GI system?
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  4. What are the changes that occur with aging on the GI system?
    • constipation, incontinence, divericulitis
    • oral changes: tooth decay and loss
    • sensory changes: decreased appetite
    • loss of muscle tone in alementary organs
    • --decreased gastric motility
    • --decreased blood flow
    • --decreased nutient absorption
    • --decreased volumn and acid content of gastric juices
    • decreased intrinsic absorption: leads to B12 deficiency, can cause anemia and other issues
  5. Clinical manifestations of GI
    • nausea and vomitting
    • abdominal pain
    • diarrhea
    • anorexia
    • constipation
    • dysphagia
    • heartburn
    • belching
    • GI bleed
    • hematemesis
    • melena
    • hematochezia
    • fecal incontinence
    • fecal urgency
    • pallor
    • diaphoresis
    • dizziness
  6. What are the different types of abdominal pain with the GI system?
    • mechanical pain: stretching of wall of organ
    • inflammatory: occurs with relase of mediators stimulating sensory nerve endings
    • ischemic: occurs as tissue metabolites are released into an area of diminished blood flow
    • referred: pain perceived in area distant from source
    • epigastric with radiation to back:
    • --harp intense pain behind breast bone
    • --radaties to back
    • visceral:
    • --hollow organs are contracted forcefully and distending
    • --difficult to localize
    • --gnawing, burning, cramping, aching
    • --assoc. with sweating, pallor, nausea, vomitting
    • parietal:
    • --inflammation of parietal peritoneum
    • --steady aching, more severe
    • --can be localized over involved structure
    • arthralgia:
    • --joint pain seen in inflammatory bowel disease
    • --preceeded by GI symptoms
  7. Joint pain is:
    • asymmetric, nondeforming, and nonerosive
    • migratory
    • < 5 joints involved
  8. Symptoms may lead to GERD if:
    • burning sensation
    • sour taste
    • abdominal discomfort
    • gas
  9. GI symptoms with pain in L shoulder
    • Kehr's sign
    • requires MD referral
    • due to free air or blood in abdominal cavity
    • classic symptom of ruptured spleen
    • caused by trauma, laparoscopy, ectopic pregnancy
  10. GI pain with eating
    • gastric ulcer pain begins 30-90 minutes after eating
    • duodenal or pyloric ulcer pain 2-4 hours after eating
    • --eating may relieve painb
    • --often have night pain relieved by eating
    • "intense boring" night pain assoc with cancer
    • heartburn
    • --burning sensation
    • --sx of GERD
  11. Early satiety
    • full after very few bites
    • anorexia
  12. GI pain with swallowing
    • odynophagia:
    • pn with swallowing
    • relieved in upright position (esophagitis or spasm)
    • relieved in supine or NTG (assoc with activity, coronary ischemia)
    • dysphagia:
    • food sticks in esophagus
    • achalasis
    • --closer of lower sphincter
    • neoplasm
    • neurological disease with spasticity or rigidity
    • pharmacology
    • --antidepressants
    • --antihypertensives
    • --asthma
  13. GI problems involving feces
    • melana
    • bright red stools
    • diarrhea
    • constipation
    • fecal incontinence
  14. What is melana
    • black, tarry stool
    • due to digested blood from upper GI tract
    • esophageal varices
  15. What does bright red stool indicate?
    • blood (all require medical referral)
    • from distal colon or rectum
    • hemorroids: blood on surface
    • rectal fissures: blood on surface
    • colorectal carcinoma: blood mixed in
  16. What are the causes of diarrhea?
    • acute: infection (fever, cramps, blood)
    • chronic: all require medical referral
    • neoplasm - look for other signs
    • irritable bowel syndrom
    • laxative abuse

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