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How do we learn?
- 1. Authority: parents, teachers, books, & organizations
- 2. Intuition: hunches, insights, extrasensory knowledge
- 3. Reason(ing): from self-evident truths to logical conclusions
- 4. Sensory Data/Senses; Knowledge filtered through senses, must detect something to study & describe it.
A physical world seperate & distint from our minds.
Existence : Self-evident Truths
Events in the physical univers have natural causes.
Causality : Self-evident Truths
The laws of nature are the same every where in the universe.
Position Symmetry : Self-evident Truths
The laws of nature have remained the same through time.
Time Symmetry : Self-evident Truths
Of two contradicting propositions. Both cannot be true.
Noncontradiction : Self-evident Truths
When alternative explinations of phenomenon are availiable; choose the simplest.
Occam's Razor : Self-evident Truths
10 to the negative get smaller
10(-5) : One celled Organisms, Bacteria
10(-6) : Viruses
10(-8) : Molecules
10(-9) : Atoms
10(-14) : Nucleus protons, Neutrons
10(-16) : Quarks
10 to the positive get bigger
10(26) : Universe
10(24) : Galaxie cluster
10(21) : Galaxies
10(17) : Distance to nearest stars
10(13) : Solar Systems
10(10) : Stars
10(8) : Planets
10(6) : Continets
10(4) : Mountains
10(0) : Plants, Animals, People
Componets of the Universe
Force Relative Strength Range
Nuclear strong 10(38) Atomic nuclei
Electromagnetic 10(36) Earth Diam.
Nuclear weak 10(25) Atomic
Gravity 1 Entire universe
The four fundamental forces
No Net Force : it will remain at rest or continue to move in uniform motion.
Net Force : Acceleration of an object is directly proportional.
Source of Force : always from interactions between objects.
Mosquito & Big Mack truck
When two objects hit, the first object pushes as hard as the second at the point of interaction.
Third law : Source of Force
F = K Qq
Electric Force Law Form