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- A political era of 1820’s pioneered by President Jackson
- It promoted more democratic atmosphere that encouraged to encompass more equality for men (white men), and not just elites.
- Jackson has broaden the public’s involvement in government, allowing more more involvement from the public
- Evolved at the expense of slaves and Native Americans
- A more recognized accomplishment attributed to Jacksonian Democracy is equal suffrage to white man.
- No longer does a man needs to own property or pay taxes to vote ( all white men )
- Jackson himself isn’t of elite background.
Cult of Domesticity
- A quasi guide of late 19th Century for proper Womanhood.
- It discouraged reading of any kind except for the bible.
- Encouraged to stay a virgin as it was considered to be the greatest asset.
- Being submissive under the premise of “Man being superior by the God’s appointment”
- During the presidency of Thomas Jefferson a purchase of a vast French territory has been deemed as controversial.
- Port of New Orlean
- 828k, more than doubled US Territory
- Paved the way to manifest destiny and Westward expansion
- The opposition has claimed it unconstitutional meanwhile Jefferson did not see how that interferes with the constitution went ahead and purchased that land that had become most of current mid-west states.
- For Jefferson it was an important purchase since it granted him access to Mississippi river.
- This allowed for more territories to be used for farming - mostly cotton
- New farm lands expansion drove indians off their land and had exploited slave labor in clearing land for farm-lands
First Party System
- After Washington’s presidency the country started to split from one party system to two different one.
- This lasted from late 1790’s to 1820’s and sometimes referred to “Feel Good Era”.
- Towards 1820’s the two parties emerged.
- Federalists (by Alexander Hamilton), and Democratic-Republican (Thomas Jefferson).
- 19th century 1800-1840
- References to the development of working class and work week that occured in 1793.
- The idea of salary and wage work comes about.
- Fears of the new class distinctions - Working class struggling with economic mobility; MIddle class fears political power shift to the Working Class
- People moving into cities away from the family based small towns
- North becomes an economic powerhouse - largely dividing economic conditions of the country that also contributes to the Civil War
- Change in relations between men and women bring about Call of Domesticity
- middle class managers became more materialistic
- Industrial Revolution
- White southern slaveholders think that blacks cannot be free.
- Better off being slaves because they are taking care of.
- Keeping slave families together.
- Keeping them happy.
- justified slavery
- pre civil war
Cult of Domesticity
- Men working outside the home
- Women's role are to have a moral authority especially in the home, “Cult True Womanhood”
- Piety (religious), pure, submissive, nurture
- Marriage, family, women (new image of family)
- During Market Revolution woman’s role is to create a sanctuary.
- Maintenance of patriarchy through idea of separate male and female “spheres”
- more education, volunteering, petitions
- believed they should be more educated since they were to be the moral compass
- expand influence beyond household
- Before the Civil War, Good Death was to be able to see the end approaching, accept it and declare to friends and family members their belief in God and his promise of salvation.
- In terms of Civil War - it was feared that on a battlefield wasn’t suitable for such death.
- Many soldiers took up writing letters to their loved ones before the battle in case it was their last one.
Cherokee v. Georgia
- United States Supreme Court case.
- The Cherokee Nation sought a federal injunction against laws passed by the state of Georgia depriving them of rights within its boundaries.
- Indians said George has no power to infringe the treaties that indians made with USA
- Supreme Court does not have jurisdiction.
- Chief Justice Marshall: Indians are “wards” of the federal government
- Leads to “Trail to Tears”out of 15k 4k died.
- Moved to Indian Territories in present day Oklahoma
Second Great Awakening
- Rejection of idea of “pre- destination”
- Salvation can be achieved by performing good deeds
- Every person could be saved through revivals, repentance, and conversion.
- Millions of people converted - those who did had to spread the good word
- Emphasis on individual choice and self-discipline
- Affected all classes
- Women played a prominent role
- Becomes market place of religion
Seneca Falls Convention
- 1848, in Seneca Falls a convention that’s made up of mostly women, gathered to discuss the role of women in the developing American society.
- Condemned injuries on the part of men towards women through signing a Declaration of Sentiment
- It denounced Denial of right to vote, Denial of access to education and employment • Husband’s control over property and wages of their wives • Deprivation of women’s independent legal status after marriage
- Many women went on to become abolition activists and other political key players overshadowed by the domination of men in politics.
- One of the first victories of the women is Married Woman's Property Act, giving women the right to retain property they brought into a marriage, as well as property they acquired during the marriage.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
- Slave Taken into Free territory (Illinois) thought he should be freed
- Once a slave always a slave comes out of it
- Made that slaves were a property
- supreme court decision made it that slaves were property and not human no matter the location
- Can be cashed in, exchanged and traded no moral worth
- Slavery -> Slave is a slave anywhere
- Family could be broken up any time (unlike Paternalism)
- people reimbursed for slave law
- once a slave always a slave even in free territory
- ratified in 1868
- granted rights to former slaves and all those born in U.S.
- didnt grant blacks the right to vote
- considered one of the most important constitutional changes since adoption of the Bill of Rights
- All (most)democrats voted against it, majority of republicans voted for it
- by anti slavery whigs, democrats founded and free soilers
- Main cause Kansas Nebraska Act: repealed the Missouri Compromise, kept slavery out of Kansas
- derived from the Jeffersonians
- leading anti slavery “expansion” campaigns
- start new divides between North and South
- Slaves lived private lives for themselves and in public/masters pretended to be happy, prevented things like family broken up because of good relationship w/ master
- slaves had a private life and public life
- in private slaves would gather and practice traditions and beliefs
- tight community, seen as a family and everyone was included even if they werent blood bc so many were split from their own families
- compliance would lead to insurance of keeping family from being split up
Compromise of 1877
- Democrats had rose to power in South, rep party was under threat.
- Tight Pres. Election '76 - both claimed that they carry southern states.
- Back door deal Democrats agree to accept Heys (Lost popular vote but was declared a winner) pres - if he recognized democrats controlled south.
- Stops guarding court-houses in southern states and appoint on dem to Hays cabinet
- Deal made by Democrat and Republican commission to resolve the disputes of 1876 election
- Hayes (Repub.) lost popular vote, declared Hayes winner in exchange for withdrawal of federal troops in southern government