Kidneys Mac Style
Card Set Information
Kidneys Mac Style
What connects the kidney to the bladder?
Where does the nephron extend into?
What are the 3 primary mechanisms of the kidney involved in the production of urine?
glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion
What happens during glomerular filtration?
Plasma is loaded into the tubular system
What happens during tubular reabsorption?
The "good stuff" is returned from the tubule to the capillary
What happens during tubular secretion?
Additional waste is secreted from the capillary to the tubule
Approximately how many nephrons does each kidney have?
About 1 million
What are the 2 components of the renal corpuscle?
Glomerulus and Bowmans Space
What are the 2 components of the collecting duct system?
Cortical collecting duct and medullary collecting duct
What are the 4 components of the renal tubule (in order)?
Proximal tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct system
What are the 4 primary mechanisms of the nephron involved in the production of urine?
Filtration, reabsorption, excretion, secretion
What are the 2 types of capillaries in nephrons?
Glomerular and peritubular
What are the 2 types of aretioles in the nephron?
Afferent and efferent
Where does glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption occur?
What surrounds capillaries?
Podocytes of Bowman's capsule
What allows fluid to pass into Bowmans capsule?
Filtration slits between the podocytes
What are the epithelial foot processes?
What is the glomerular capillary blood pressure?
What is the net glomerular filtration pressure?
Is filtration higher at afferent end or efferent end?
What are the 2 factors that lead to a large filtration faction?
Large filtration coefficient and large avg hydrostatic pressure difference
How many liters of plasma are filtered every day?
What happens in the glomerular capillaries?
What happens in the peritubular capillaries?
What is renal clarence?
The volume of solute that must be completely cleared of x to account for what is excreted in the urine
What is glomerular filtration rate?
What is the clearance if everything that is filtered is reabsorbed?
What has a clearance of 0?
When is the clearance equal to the renal plasma flow?
If a substance is filtered and secreted and none of the solute is left in the venous blood
What happens to water channels in the presence of ADH?
Water channels insert in collecting tube membrane and permit osmotic equilibrium between collecting duct fluid and medullary interstitial fluid
What happens to water channels in the absence of ADH?
Water channels are removed from collecting tube membrane and urine remains hypo-osmotic as it passes through collecting duct
What is water reabsorption coupled with?
What helps stabilizie pH when acids or bases are added?
Body fluid buffers
What is the major extracellular buffer in the body?
CO2/HC03 buffer system
What happens to CO2 during hyperventilation?
What happens to PCO2, pH, and HCO3 during respiratory acidsosis weakness?
PCO2 up, pH down, HCO3 up
What are 3 causes of respiratory acidosis weakness?
lung disease, drug, muscel
What happens to PCO2, pH, and HCO3 during respiratory alkalosis?
PCO2 down, pH up, HCO3 down
What are 2 causes of respiratory alkalosis?
Anxiety and high altitude
What does PCO2 do during non-respiratory acidosis and alkalosis?
What happens to pH and HCO3 during non- respiratory acidosis?
They go down
What causes non- respiratory acidosis?
anaerobic exercise, diarrhea
What happens to pH and HCO3 during non- respiratory alkalosis?
They go up
What causes non-respiratory alkalosis?
Vomiting and alkaline tide
What does high PCO2 result in?
What does low PCO2 result in?
What organ regulates HC03?
Where does acid-base transport take place?
What is the difference between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis?
What are the 4 general GI functions?
Mechanical, secretory, digestive, absorptive
What are the 3 mechanical functions of the GI tract?
Grinding/ pulverizing, mixing, propulsion