Exotic Animal Management

Card Set Information

Author:
Marytaylor
ID:
187665
Filename:
Exotic Animal Management
Updated:
2012-12-09 16:14:19
Tags:
Avarian brod
Folders:

Description:
Final, birds, ratites
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Marytaylor on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Name 5 Psittaciforme
    • Parrot
    • Macaw
    • Cockatoo
    • Cockatiel
    • Lovebird
  2. Name 2 Passeriformes
    • Canary
    • Finch
  3. Psittacine have a _____ bill
    Hook
  4. Passerines have a ________ bill.
    Straight
  5. Name 3 birds that originated from Australia
    • Budgerigar
    • Cockatiel
    • Cockatoo
  6. Name 2 birds that originated from Mexico, Central and South America
    • Double Yellow Headed Amazon
    • Macaw
  7. Budgerigar weight, colors, sex distinction and lifespan
    • Wt: 28 grams
    • Colors: Green, Blue, Violet, Cream
    • Sex Distint: Male=Blue cere Female = Brown Cere
    • Lifespan: 8 yrs avg
  8. Cockatiel weight, colors, sex distinction and lifespan
    • Wt: 70 - 90gms,
    • Colors: Gray, Gray Mottle, Albino
    • Sex distinction: Males have brighter orange face patch
    • Lifespan: 20 yrs
  9. Double Yellow Headed Amazon 
    weight, colors, sex distinction and lifespan
    • Wt: 450 - 500 gms
    • Colors: Green body plummage with yellow head
    • Sex Distint: Must be sexed
    • Lifespan: 40 - 50 yrs
  10. Macaw weight, colors, sex distinction and lifespan
    • Wt: 1 1/2 - 2lbs
    • Colors: Blue & Gold, Scarlet, Military, Hyacinth
    • Sex Distint: must be sexed
    • Lifespan: 70 - 80 yrs
  11. Cockatoo weight, colors, sex distinction and lifespan
    • Wt: 450 -550 gms
    • Colors: Moluccan, Umbrella, Sulfur-crested
    • Sex Distint: must be sexed
    • Lifespan: 60 - 80 yrs
  12. Canaries weight, colors, sex distinction and lifespan
    • Wt: 18 - 20 gms
    • Colors: Yellow and Red
    • Sex Distinct: Males have brighter plummage
    • Lifespan: 6 - 16 yrs
  13. African Grey weight, colors, sex distinction and lifespan
    • Wt: 450 - 500 gms
    • Colors: Grey with red tail
    • Sex Distint: must be sexed, but males tend to have brighter plummage on tail
    • Lifespan: 40 - 50 yrs
  14. Temperature
    Heartrate
    • Temperature: 104 - 112         Mean=107 F
    • Heartrate: 120 - 1000
  15. Remiges
    wing flight feathers
  16. Retrices
    Tail flight feathers
  17. Coverts
    Other wing feathers
  18. Plume
    Down feathers
  19. 6 functions of feathers
    • Temperature regulation
    • Insulation
    • Protection
    • Sexual Attraction
    • Flight
    • Waterproofing
  20. Molting is influence by what 6 factors:
    • Season
    • Temperature
    • Nutrition
    • Species
    • Egg Production
    • Sex
  21. The vetebral formula is 
    C=
    T=
    LS=
    C=
    • C= 12
    • T= 8
    • LS= 8
    • C= 8
  22. Tibia is called the ________ and the metatarsals are fused and called the ______________.
    tibiotarsal; tarsometatarsal 
  23. Passerines = rear toe(s) _____Forward toes ______
    Psittacines = rear toe(s) _____Forward toes _______
    • Passerines = rear toe 1 Forward toes 2, 3, & 4
    • Psittacines = rear toes 1 & 4 Forward toes 2 & 3
  24. How many air sacs do most birds have and what is their purpose?
    • 6-9 pairs
    • Help to give flight
  25. What is the purpose of the crop?
    It is used as a storage compartment until ready for digestion.
  26. What is a unique feature of the reproductive process?
    What problem is common in cockatiels that is a result of repeated fertilization?
    • Only have one functional left ovary and oviduct. Cycling birds can lay eggs without fertilization. 
    • Calcium depletion.
  27. Name the 2 stomach systems
    • Proventriculus
    • Ventriculus or gizzards
  28. What is the main function of the gizzards?
    Grinding food because they have no teeth.
  29. What are two feed items that should be given sparingly to birds?
    Peanuts and Sunflower seeds
  30. Name 3 protein sources that you can give birds?
    Cheese, hard-boiled egg in the shell and meat
  31. What is the purpose of grit and how many times per year should it be given?
    • Aids in digestion;
    • 3-4 times p/yr
  32. 6 Things to tell a client bring a bird into the clinic:
    • 1. Bring the bird in its own cage.
    • 2. Do not clean the cage.
    • 3. Empty the water dish.
    • 4. Cover the cage while in transit.
    • 5. Remove swings and lower the perches.
    • 6. Bring sample of feed and other supplements.
  33. 8 General signs of illness in birds
    • 1. Absence of talking or singing.
    • 2. Change in food or water consumption.
    • 3. Change in the droppings.
    • 4. Change in attitude; listless, decreases activity, lameness.
    • 5. Change in appearance; pasty vent, ruffled feathers, discharge around mouth or eyes, extended molting.
    • 6. Wheezing or labored breathing.
    • 7. Tail-bobbing
    • 8. Masses in or under the skin.
  34. Common restraint technique for budgie, canary or finch.
    Penlight method. Hold head between thumb and forefinger; allow bird to rest on its back
  35. Common restraint technique for Cockatiel:
    Hold head between thumb and forefinger; restrain on back holding tail and feet in the other hand.
  36. Common restraint technique for Amazon Parrot & African Grey:
    Paper towel technique gather wings in hand that is restraining feet and tail.
  37. Common restraint technique for Macaw & Cockatoo:
    Large towel "Birdie Burrito" style; Do not hold cheeks and use caution with tail.
  38. Common restraint technique for Raptors
    Restraint feet first.
  39. Common restraint technique for Shore birds:
    Restrain beak first
  40. Name 4 methods for oral admin of drugs
    • Drinking Water
    • Plastic Dropper
    • Gavage
    • Medicated Feed
  41. 4 types of parenteral drug administration and location:
    • Intramuscular - pectoral muscles 26-27 ga needle
    • Subcutaneous - skin of neck or groin
    • Intravenous - jugular or wing vein
    • Intraosseous - Ulna
  42. Inhalation is used for
    • Nebulization
    • Respiratory Therapy
  43. Exudate from nares
    Rhinitis
  44. Swelling beneath one or both eyes
    Sinusitis
  45. Yeast infection in the larynx or crop
    Treatment?
    • Candida
    • Nystatin
  46. Exudative lesions causing the respiratory epithelium to erode
    Avian Pox
  47. Name 3 types of Irritant gases
    Teflon, ammonia or oven cleaner
  48. Viral or bacteria. Sign is tail bobbing.
    Pneumonia
  49. Viral. Vaccine available. High death rate in turkeys and poultry.
    Newcastle Disease
  50. Infectious airsacculitis can be caused by ____________ which can lead to what 5 diseases/parasite
    • irritant gases 
    • Aspergillus
    • E. Coli
    • Pasturella
    • Clamydia
    • Air sac mites
  51. A disease of the mouth, esophagus and crop and the 
    Treatment
    • Trichomoniasis 
    • Flagyl
  52. Inflammed or ulcerated crop
    Sour Crop
  53. "Wasting Disease"
    Proventricular Dilatation Disease
  54. Liver, Hepesvirus
    Pacheco's Disease
  55. Viral, malformed, necrotic feathers and beak
    Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
  56. Name 4 endoparasites
    • Ascarids
    • Threadworms
    • Habronema incertum
    • Railletina
  57. Location of Ascarids (roundworms)
    Small intestine
  58. Location of threadworms
    Capillaria, Small intestine
  59. Location of Habronema incertum
    Proventriculus
  60. Type of worm asscociated with Raillietina and Location.
    Cestodes (tapeworm); Small intestine
  61. Name an ectoparasite
    Cnemidocoptes pilae or scaly leg mites
  62. Treatent of choice for both endo and ecto parasites
    Ivermectin
  63. Crows use _________ as a means of survival.
    Social and cultural learned behavior
  64. What bird has the ability to use and make tools?
    New Calidonean Crow
  65. What crow is considered a construction artist?
    Japanese Jungle Crow
  66. The first feathered bird
    Archaeopteryx
  67. Extant means
    Current
  68. List 6 extant species
    • Rhea (R hea Americana)
    • Ostrich (Struthio camelus)
    • Cassowary (Casuarius spp.) 
    • Kiwi (Apteryx spp.)
    • Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
    • Tinamou 
  69. List 2 extinct species
    • Moa
    • Elephant bird
  70. Ostrich 
    Origin:
    Uses:
    Wt:
    Ht:
    Speed:
    Ability
    • Origin: East and South Africa  
    • Uses: Primarily for feathers, but also for meat and eggs. Eggs wt= 1 ½ - 2 lbs.
    • Wt: 160 kilograms apx. 300 lbs.
    • Ht: 3 meters (6-8 ft)
    • Speed: 45 mph 
    • Ability: Forward kicking ability
  71. Emu
    Origin:
    Ht:
    Wt:
    Uses:
    • Origin: Australian grasslands and eucalyptus forest 
    • Ht: 6 ft (Two meters)
    • Wt: 150lbs. (75 kilograms)
    • Uses: Emu oil used in cosmetics, lotions, and oils for boots. Also used for meat, feathers, hide and eggs. Male incubates green eggs 
  72. Rhea
    Origin:
    Uses:
    Ht:
    Wt:
    • Origin: South America 
    • Uses: feathers, meat, leather and eggs 
    • Ht: 2 ft. (1 ½ meters)
    • Wt: 50 lbs. (25 kilograms)
  73. Cassowary
    Origin:
    Size:
    Coloring/Characteristics:
    Uses:
    • Origin: Malay Archipelago and Australia
    • Size: Emu size 100-150 lbs.
    • Coloring/Characteristics: Distinctive coloring red and blue skin head and neck 
    • Uses: meat, eggs and feathers
  74. Kiwi
    Mating Habit:
    Size:
    Origin:
    Characteristics:
    Predators
    • Mating Habit: Monogamous  
    • Size: Chicken size
    • Origin: New Zealand – Their national bird.
    • Characteristics: Closely resemble the extinct moa. Largest egg of any bird.
    • Predators: Cats and Ferrets
  75. Tinamou
    Origin:
    Special Characteristics:
    Size:
    # of species
    • Origin: Forested regions in Mexico, Central & South America   
    • Special Characteristic: Flighted. Females are larger than males.
    • Size: Partridge size 
    • 49 Tinamou species 
  76. Moa
    Origin:
    Wt:
    Extinct due to:
    • Origin: New Zealand 
    • Wt: up to 1000 lbs.
    • Extinct due to: hunting by indigenous people, delayed reproductive maturity, plant evolution avoiding herbivory
  77. Elephant bird - Aepyrornis maximus
    Wt:
    Ht:
    Extinct since ____ due to:
    Model for:
    • Wt: 1100 kilograms
    • Ht: Three to four meters 
    • Extinct since the 1600’s due to human predation 
    • Model for: Roc in One Thousand and One Nights.
  78. List the polygamous species
    Ostrich & Rhea can be either polyandrous or polygamous
  79. List the Polyandrous species
    Emu, Tinamous and Rhea can be either polyandrous or polygamous.
  80. Describe the Unique morphological & physiological features of ratites:
    Palaeognathous palate or “ancient jaw”. They have a single plate palate 

    Neotony means they retain their juvenile features example: large eyes, downy feathers, long legs and big beaks.
  81. Feather coloration - Chemical
    _________ - Reds, oranges, yellows obtained from diet
    Example __________
    Carotenoids; Cardinal
  82. Feather coloration - Chemical
    _________- Reds, browns, greens; breakdown of hemoglobin in the liver  Example ________
    Porphyrins; Sparrows
  83. Feather coloration - Chemical
    __________- Black, gray, browns, tans; insoluble granules in feather barbs. Example ______________
    Melanins; Grackle
  84. Feather Coloration – Structural
    ______- Feather contains melanin particles that reflect or absorb light in feather medulla Example ___________.
    Blue; Budgie
  85. Feather Coloration – Structural
    __________ - Carotenoids in feather cortex and melanin in medulla create effect Example ______________
    Green; Amazon parrot
  86. Feather Coloration – Structural
    ____________ - Different wavelengths reflected, refracted and absorbed Example _____________
    Iridescent; hummingbird
  87. Feather Coloration – Structural
    ____________ - Total reflection of light spectrum Example ____________
    White; Pelican
  88. What is the primary purpose of the pectoral muscles?
    Flight and Respiration
  89. List the 4 stages of the Egg Production
    • Ovum development
    • Ovulation
    • Fertilization
    • Oviduct expulsion
  90. What is the proper temperature for a bird?
    75 – 80 F
  91. Why do you restrain a bird?
    • 1. Physical Exam,
    • 2. Performing Treatments and
    • 3. Performing Diagnostic Procedures
  92. Where do you obtain blood from the following:
    Budgie
    Cockatiel

    How much blood do you obtain?
    • Budgie: Toenail      Amount= .2 ml
    • Cockatiel/Macaw: Leg Vein   Amount= 2ml
  93. Steps to examining a bird
    • 1. Take weight
    • 2. Examine the keel
    • 3. Examine the oral cavity
    • 4. Check the vent
    • 5. Manicure wings, toenails, beak
    • 6. Take blood sample with 2 capillary tubes and 2 slides
    • 7. Fecal exam - Direct Smear & Floatation.
  94. PCV
    Packed Cell Volume
  95. Estimate Method for obtaining WBC
    Count the WBC in 5 microscopic fields added together, divide by 5, multiply by 2000.
  96. Unopette Method for obtaining Eosinophils
    # of cells stained X 1.1 X 16, divided by the % granulocytes per 100 cells.

    Requires leukocheck solution and hemacytometer.
  97. List the 6 types of WBCs found in birds
    • 1. Band heterophils
    • 2. Segmented heterophils
    • 3. Monocytes
    • 4. Leukocytes 
    • 5. Eosinophil
    • 6. Basophils.
    • Birds do not have segmented neutrophils they are instead called Heterophils most predominant cell.
  98. Monocyte
    Squarish with vacuoles and cytoplasm is dark blue
  99. Eosinophil
    Similar to a heterophil except red round granules
  100. Basophil
    Similar to an eosinophil except dark purple granules
  101. A blood parasite that is commonly found in Cockatoos but generally does not cause a problem. To locate look above the buffy coat in capillary tube.
    Microfilaria
  102. A blood parasite that is transmitted by mosquitoes and flies is ____________– Commonly occurs in erythrocyte (RBC).
    Hematozoa
  103. Another blood parasite that is commonly found in Cockatoos that inhabits the cytoplasm of RBC is the ______. This parasite does not displace the nucleus
    Hemoproteus
  104. Cell which can cause death because it displaces nucleus in RBC. Causes anemia, lethargy. This species causes malaria.
    Plasmodium
  105. A blood parasite commonly found in raptors. It can be found in both RBC & WBC.
    Leukocytozoan
  106. Symptoms - Pea green diarrhea, flu-like symptoms, requires antibiotics for 45-60 days.
    Psittacosis
  107. Symptoms vomiting, diarrhea. Found mostly in poultry production
    Salmonella
  108. Benefits and precautions for outdoor bird cages
    • Benefits: Sunlight, fresh air, rain, exercise
    • Precautions: Extreme climate variation, predator proof
  109. Name 5 zoonotic diseases of birds
    • Psittacosis
    • Salmonella
    • Giardia
    • Ringworm
    • Mites
  110. Birds are attracted to what characteristics of food?
    Color and texture.
  111. Hand raised birds are prone to _________________
    when the crop is not _________________.
    bacterial infections; completely evacuated.
  112. When is the only time that you can see the crop?
    When there is food in it.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview