Micro Test 3: Roundworms, Nematode Infections

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BrookeNH10
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187672
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Micro Test 3: Roundworms, Nematode Infections
Updated:
2012-12-07 00:20:38
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Roundworms Nematode Infections
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Roundworms- Nematode Infections
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  1. Nematodes or Platyhelminths:  Bilateral symmetry?
    Both
  2. Nematodes or Platyhelminthes:  Cylindrical shape
    Nematodes (roundworms)
  3. Nematodes or Platyhelminths:  Dorosventrally flattened leaf or tape-shaped
    Platyhelminths
  4. Circulatory System, Digestive Tract, Excretory System:
    Nematodes?
    Platyhelminths?
    Nematodes:  Lack a circulatory system, but have a complete digestive tract and excretory system

    Platyhelminths:  Lack body cavity, circulatory system, and digestive system
  5. Nematodes or Platyhelminths:
    Which one has an outer covering that is a secreted chitinous cuticle?

    What does the other have?
    Nematodes

    Platyhelminths have outer surfaces that are cellular rather than secreted
  6. All of this type of helminth that are parasitic in man have separate sexes?
    Nematode
  7. Caecae end blindly in ?
    Trematodes (flukes)
  8. Completely lack intestines, usually hemaphroditic although the sexes can be separate.
    Cestodes (tapeworms)
  9. Five Stages of Nematode Deveopment?
    What stage is it infective in?
    • Adults, eggs, three larval stages
    • 3rd larval stage usually infective for vertebrate host
  10. Type of nemotode that has infective larva in egg
    Enterobius (pin worm)
  11. Autoinfection of Enterobius vermicularis
    Eggs hatch in perianal folds
  12. Most common worm infection in US
    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
  13. Enterobius vermicularis life cyclie
    • 1)  Embryonated eggs ingested by human (infective stage, eggs becomes infective within 4-6 hrs.)
    • 2)  Larvae hatch in small intestine
    • 3)  Adults in lumen of cecum
    • 4)  Gravid migrates to perianal region at night to lay eggs
    • 5)  Eggs in perianal folds, larvae inside the eggs mature within 4 to 6 hours (diagnostic stage)
  14. Perianal pruritis "seat itch, scratching & scarifications, nervousness, insomnia, nightmares, and fatigue. (Eosinophilia is rare because these worms don't penetrate the tissue.)
    Enterobius vermicularis
  15. Mucoid vaginal discharge and eggs in swab, can migrate into the fallopian tubes and cause Chronic Salpingitis
    Enterobius vermicularis
  16. What is the only form of Enterobius vermicularis infection that has eosinophilia?
    When they migrate into the peritoneal cavity and cause peritoneal egg granulomas.
  17. Can  you find pinworm eggs in stool?
    No, must use double-sided tape
  18. Enterobius vermicularis tx?
    • Mebendazole
    • Pyrantel pamoate
    • Albendazole
  19. Ascaris lumbricoides
    Roundworm Infection
  20. Pig ascarids can cause infectin of
    Ascaris lumbricoides (Roundworm)
  21. Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, VLM (Visceral Larval Migrans), Trichuriasis are transmitted
    fecal-oral transmission
  22. Eggs hatch, larvae penetrate intestinal wall, enter circulation.
    Larvae reach lung capillaries, remain ~ 3 wks, produce pneumonitis and exudation of eosinophils.
    Larvae penetrate bronchioles, coughed up and swallowed (larvae and eosinophils in sputum)
    Adult females live 1-2 years in the small intestine, pass unembryonated eggs in stool
    Ascaris lumbricoides
  23. Diagnostic stage of Ascaris lumbricoides
    • When it's coughed up and ingested, full worm
    • Eggs found in feces
  24. Infective stage of Ascaris lumbricoides
    Egg is ingested through mouth
  25. Which form of worm has eggs in feces?
    • Enterobius vermiclaris (pinworm)- no
    • Ascaris llumbricoides (roundworm)- yes
  26. Charcot-leyden crystals, eosinophils, rales, resembles asthmatic attack
    Ascaris Pneumonitis (Ascaris Lumbricoides)
  27. Transient pulmonary infiltrates w/ peripheral eosinophila
    Loeffler's Syndrome (Ascaris Lumbricoides)
  28. Increased fecal nitrogen and fat, and decreased carbohydrate absorption
    Nutritional Impairment, FTT (Ascaris lumbricoides)
  29. What is a common organ for worms to come out during surgery, fever, etc?
    • Nose
    • Extra-Intestinal Worm Migration (Ascaris Lumbricoides)
  30. Name 3 Clinical Syndromes of Ascaris Lumbricoides.
    Duct blockage, appendicitis/peritonitis, intestinal obstruction
  31. How do you make diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides?
    Larvae in sputum or gastric washings, unembryonated 75 x 50 um eggs w/ mammilated coat
  32. Ascaris lumbricoides tx?
    • Mebendazole
    • Albendazole
    • Ivermectin
  33. Dog transmammary transmission is common in
    VLM
  34. Liver -> Eggs passed in feces--> Embryonated egg w/ larvae (infective stage) --> Ingested --> Larvae migrate to various organs where their development is arrested.
    VLM
  35. Infective stage of VLM?
    Embryonated eggs w/ larvae
  36. Diagnostic stage of VLM
    In humans, eggs hatch after ingestion and larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate to a wide variety of tissues and cause VLM and OLM
  37. Which worm can cause vision loss by migrating to the eye?  Loss is usually unilateral and there is eosinophilic inflammation
    OLM (Ocular Larvar Migrans)
  38. Which worm do the larvae not mature in the body in?
    VLM
  39. Migration of VLM does it have eosinophilic inflammation?
    Yes
  40. Chronic recurring abdominal pain, heptomegaly, cough, wheezing, sleep disturbances, headache, malaise, anorexia, FTT
    Covert Toxocariasis (VLM)
  41. VLM Tx?
    • Albendazole
    • Mebendazole
  42. Infected pet supports diagnosis of?
    VLM
  43. Whipworm infection causative agent?
    Tricuris trichiuria (disease also known as Tricuriasis)
  44. Which worm infections have no animal reservoirs?
    Trichuriasis
  45. Worms with fat posteriors that hang in fecal stream, slender anteriors sewn into mucosa
    Trichuris trichiura
  46. Trichus tichiura life cycle lasts for ______.
    Eggs are infectious ____ after passage.
    • 3 months
    • 3 weeks
  47. Adults in cecum and eosinophilic inflammation in cecum is characteristic of which worm?
    Trichus trichiura
  48. Unembryonated eggs passed in feces is diagnostic of?
    Trichus trichiura
  49. Severe infection of Trichuris trichiura
    >30 eggs/mg feces (Chronic dysentery, Charcot-Leyden crystals)
  50. Eggs and Charcot-Leyden crystal in stool is diagnostic for?
    Trichuris trichiura
  51. Tx for Trichuris tichiura?
    • Mebendazole
    • Albendazole
    • Ivermectin
  52. Infective larvae of what worm penetrate skin abrasion or bare feet?
    Necator filariform
  53. Hookworms (2)
    Ancylostoma, Necator
  54. Diagnostic stage of hookworms?
    Eggs in feces
  55. Infective stage of hookworms?
    Filariform larva penetrate bare skin
  56. Which larvae mature in small intestine, adults attach to intestinal mucosa and suck blood?
    Hookworms
  57. Hookworm with two large pairs of teeth, head curved in same direction as body.
    Ancylostoma duodenale
  58. Hookworm with chitinized cutting plates in mouth, head curved opposite to curvature of body.
    Necator americanus
  59. Skin produces allergic rxn w/ intense pruritis, minute hemorrhagic lesions in alveoli w/ infiltrate of eosinophils and mononuclear cells
    Hookworms
  60. Hookworm tx?
    • Mebendazole
    • Albendazole
    • Pyrantel Pamoate
  61. What kind of worm has been used to treat IBD or Chron's?
    Hookworms
  62. Cutaneous Larva Migrans:
    Caught from?
    • Infected dog or cat
    • Subcutaneous lesions
  63. Dermatitis due to invasion of the skin by filariform larvae is a symptom of
    Cutaneous Larva Migrans (CLM)
  64. Clinical history plus presence of clinically evident serpiginous tract is diagnostic of
    CLM
  65. CLM tx?
    • Self limiting, larvae dies in 5-6 wks
    • Albendazole
    • Ivermectin
  66. Which worm hatches to yeild rhabditiform (non-infectious) larvae in stool and upper small intestine?
    Strongyloides stercoralis
  67. Causes accelerated hyperinfection precipitated by loss of cellular immunity due to disease (HTL1-V, hematologic cancers)
  68. Strongyloides stercoralis
    • Ivermectin
    • Albendazole
  69. Acquired from eating undercooked pork
    Trichinella spiralis
  70. 2 Phases of Trichinella spiralis
    • Enteral Phase
    • Parenteral phase
  71. Trichinella spiralis can only survive in
    striated skeletal muscle
  72. Facial edema, myocarditis w/ symptoms of tachycardia, hypotension, petechial hemorrhages below finger nails and elevated venous pressure
    Trichinella spiralis
  73. Trichinella tx. during muscle stage?
    Corticosteroids

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