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What are the female gonads and what are the accessory ducts?
- Ovaries are the female gonads
- -produce female gametes (ova)-exocrine function
- -secrete female sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone)-endocrine function
- Accessory ducts include:
- -uterine tubes
What are females internal and external genitalia?
- Internal genitalia:
- -uterine tubes
- external genitalia:
- -the external sex organs
What are the ovaries held in place by?
- Ovarian ligament: anchors ovary medially to the uterus
- Suspensory ligament: anchors ovary laterally to the pelvic wall
- mesovarium: suspends the ovary
supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; also contains the suspensory ligament and the mesovarium
How are the ovaries uspplied with blood and what are the main regions?
ovarian arteries and the ovarian branch of the uterine artery supply the blood
the ovaries are surrounded by a fibrous tinuca albuginea
- Two poorly define regions:
- -cortex: ovarian follicles
- -medulla: large blood vessels and nerves
What is a follicle?
- an Immature egg (oocyte) surrounded by
- -follicle cells (one cell layer thick)
- -granulosa cells (when more than one layer is present)
What are the stages of development for a follicle?
squamouslike follicle cells + oocyte
cuboidal or columnat follicle cells + oocyte
contains fluid-filled space between granulosa cells; coalesces to form a central antrum
Vesicular (Graafin or tertiary) follicle
: fluid filled antrum forms; follicle bulges from ovary surface
ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle
develops from ruptured follicle after ovulation
What makes up the female Duct system?
- uterine (fallopian) tubes or oviducts
Describe the uterine tubes
- Ampulla: distal expansion with infundibulum near ovary
- -usual site of fertilization
- ciliated fimbrae of infundibulum create current to move oocyte into uterine tube
- -oocyte is carried along by perialsis and ciliary motion
- -non ciliated cells nourish the oocyte and the sperm
isthmus: constricted region where the tube joins the uterus
- mesosalpinx: mesentery that supports the uterine tubes
Describe the anatomy of the uterus
- body: major portion
- fundus: rounded superior region
- isthmus: narrowing inferior region
- cervix: narrow neck, or outlet; projects into the vagina
- cervial canal communicates with:
- -vagina via the external os
- -uterine body via the internal os
cervical glands secrete mucus that blocks sperm entry except during midcycle
function of the uterus is to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
What supports the uterus?
mesometrium--lateral support: portion of the broad ligament
lateral cervial (cardinal) ligament: from the cervix and superior part of the vagina to the walls of the pelvis
uterosacrol ligaments secture the uterus to the sacrum
round ligaments bind to the anterior wall
What are the peritoneal pouches?
- sacs of peritoneum exist around the uterus
- -vesicouterine pouch between the bladder and the uterus
- -rectouterine pouch between the rectum and the uterus
What are the three layers of the uterine wall?
- 1.Perimetrum: serous layer (visceral peritoneum)
- 2. Myometrium: interlacing layers of smooth muscle which contracr during childbirth
- 3. Endometrium: mucosal lining where fertilized egg implants
- Endometrium has 2 layers:
- Stratum functionalis (functional layer)
- -changes in reponse to the ovarian hormone cycles
- -is shed during menstruation (every 28 days)
- Stratum basalis (basal layer)
- -forms new functionalis after menstruation
- -unresponsive to ovarian hormones
What is the uterine vascular supply?
- uterine arteries: arise from internal iliacs
- arcuate arteries: in the myometrium
- Radial branches int he endometrium branch into:
- -spiral arteries-->stratum functionalis
- -straight arteries--> stratum basalis
- *spasms of the spiral arteries leaad to the shedding of the stratum functionalis
What is the vagina?
birth canal and organ of copulation
extends between the bladder and the rectum from the cervix to the exterior
urethra embedded in the anterior wall
What are the layers of the vagina?
- 1. Fibroelastic adventitia
- 2.Smooth muscle muscularis
- 3. Stratified squamous mucosa with rugae
- -mucosa near vaginal orifice form an incomplete partition called the hymen
- -vaginal fornix: upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix
What are the external genitalia?
Also called the vulva or the pudendum
- -Mons pubis: fatty area overlying pubic symphysis
- -labia majora: hair-covered, fatty skin folds
- -labia minora: skin folds lying within the labia majora
- *vestibule: recess between labia minora
- Greater vestibular glands:
- -homologous to the bulborethral glands
- -release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication
- clitoris: erectile tissue hooded by a prepuce
- -glans clitoris is the exposed portion
- perineum: diamond shaped region between the pubic arch and the coccyx
- -bordered by the ischial tuberosities laterally
What are the mammary glands?
- modified sweat glands consisting of 15-25 lobes
- areola: pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
- suspensory ligaments: attach the breast to underlying muscle
- lobules within lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk
milk-->lactiferous ducts-->lactiferous sinuses-->open to the outside of the nipple
What are the risk factors for breast cancer? How is it detected and treated?
Usually arises from the epithelial cells of small ducts
- Risk factors include:
- -early onset of menstruation and late menopause
- -no pregnancies or first pregnancy late in life
- -family history of breast cancer
~10% are due to hereditary defects, including mutations to the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2
70% of women with breast cancer have no known risk factors
early detection via self-examinatino and mamography
- treatment depends on the characteristics of the lesion:
- -radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery folloed by irradiated and chemotherapy
What is oogenesis?
production of the female gametes
When does oogenesis begins?
- Begins in the fetal period
- -oogonia (2n ovarian stem cells) multiply by mitosis and store nutrients
- -primary oocytes develop in primordial follicles
- -primary oocytes begin meiosis by stall in prophase I
What happens with oogenesis each month?
each month after puberty, a few primordial oocytes are activated
- one is selected each moth to resume meiosis I
- -This results in 2 haploid cells
- 1. Secondary Oocyte
- 2. First Polar Body
- The Secondary Oocyte arrest in metaphase II and is ovulated
- -if penetrated by sperm, the second oocyte completes meiosis II, yielding
- 1. ovum (the functional gamete)
- 2. second polar body
What is the ovarian cycle?
- monthly series of events associated with the maturation of an egg
- -about 28 days
- 1. follicular phase: oeriod of follicle growth (days 1-14)
- 2. ovulation occurs midcycle
- 3. Luteal phase: period of corpus luteum activity (days 14-28)
What occurs during ovulation?
Ovary wall ruptures and expels the secondary oocyte with the scorona radiata
Mittleschmerz: twinge of pain sometimes felt at ovulation
1-2% of ovulation release more than one secondary oocyte, which, if fertilized is where fraternal twins come from
What happens during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?
- Ruptured follicle collapses
- granulosa cells and internal thecal cells form corpus lutem
corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen
If no pregnants, the corpus luteum degenerates into a corpus albicans in 10 days
- if pregnancy occurs, corpus luteum produces hormones until the placenta takes over at about 3 months
How is the ovarian cycle established?
- During childhood until puberty:
- -ovaries secrete small amounts of estrogens
- -estrogens inhibi release of GnRH
- At Puberty:
- -Leptin from adipose tissue decreases estrogen inhibition
- -GnRH, FSH, and LH are released
- -in about 4 years, an adult cyclic pattern is achieved and menarche occurs
What are the hormonal interactions at the beginning og the 28 day ovarian cycle?
- Day 1: GnRH--> release of FSH and LH
- -FSH and LH--> growth of several follicles and estrogen release
- -rise in estrogen levels
- *inhibit the release of FSH and LH
- *stimulate synthesis and storage of FSH and LH
- *enhance further estrogen output (positive feedback)
- Estrogen output by the vesicular follicle increases
- High estrogen levels have a position feedback effect on pituitary at midcycle
- Sudden LH surge at day 14
What are the hormonal effects of the LH surge on day 14 of the ovarian cycle? What are the functions of the corpus luteum?
Completion of Meiosis I (Secondary oocyte continues on to metaphase II)
transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteu
- Functions of the corpus luteum:
- -produces inhibin, progesterone, and estrogen
- -these hormones inhibit FSH and LH release
- -declining FSH and LH ends luteal activity and inhibits follicle development
What are the 3 phases of the Mestrual phase (uterine phase)?
Cyclical changes in the endometrium in response to ovarian hormones
- 1. Days 1-5: mestrual phase
- 2. days 6-14: proliferative (preovulatory) phase
- 3. Days 15-28: secretory (postovulatory phase) (contant 14 day length)
Describe the Mestrual Phase
Ovarian hormones are at their lowest levels
gonadotropins are beginning to rise
stratum functionalis is shed and the menstrual flow begins
Describe the Proliferative phase
estrogen levels prompt generation of new functional layer and increased synthesis of progesterone receptors in theendometrium
glands enlarge and spiral arteries increase in number
Describe the secretory phase
- progesterone levels prompt
- -further development of endometrium
- -glandular secretion of glycogen
- -formation of cervical mucus plug
What happens in the uterine cycle if feritlization does not occur?
- -corpus luteum degenerates
- -progesterone levels fall
- -spiral arteries kink and spasm
- -endometrial cells begin to die
- -spiral arteries constrict again, then relax and open wide
- -rush of blood fragments weakened capillary beds and the functional layer sloughs
What are the effects of estrogen?
Promotes oogenesis and the follicle growth in the ovary
exert anabolic effects on the female reproductive tract
support the rapid but short-lived growth at puberty
- Induce secondary sex characteristics:
- -growth of the breasts
- -increased deposit of subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts)
- -widening and lightening of the pelvis
- metabolic effects:
- -maintain low total blood cholesterol and high HDL levels
- -facilitates calcium uptake
What are the effects of progesterone?
progesterone works with estrogen to establish and regulate the uterine cycle
- effects of placental progesterone during pregnancy
- -inhibits uterine motility
- -helps prepare the breasts to lactation
What is the female sexual response?
initiated by touch and psychological stimuli
The clitoris, vaginal mucosa, and breasts engorge with blood
vestibular gland secretions lubricate the vestibule
orgasm is accompanied by muscle tension, increase in pulse rate and bp, and rythmic contractions of the uterus
females do not have a refractory period after orgasma nd can experience multiple orgams
orgasm is not essential for conception