Lecture Reproductive System Part 2 (female)

Card Set Information

Lecture Reproductive System Part 2 (female)
2012-12-06 23:57:09
LCCC oocyte vagina uterus ovaries ovarian cycle breasts breast cancer placenta estrogen progesterone reproductive female II

for Dr. John Loughman's exam 4
Show Answers:

  1. What are the female gonads and what are the accessory ducts?
    • Ovaries are the female gonads
    • -produce female gametes (ova)-exocrine function
    • -secrete female sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone)-endocrine function

    • Accessory ducts include:
    • -uterine tubes
    • -uterus
    • -vagina
  2. What are females internal and external genitalia?
    • Internal genitalia:
    • -ovaries
    • -uterine tubes
    • -uterus
    • -vagina

    • external genitalia:
    • -the external sex organs
  3. What are the ovaries held in place by?
    • Ovarian ligament: anchors ovary medially to the uterus
    • Suspensory ligament: anchors ovary laterally to the pelvic wall
    • mesovarium: suspends the ovary

    broad ligament: supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; also contains the suspensory ligament and the mesovarium
  4. How are the ovaries uspplied with blood and what are the main regions?
    ovarian arteries and the ovarian branch of the uterine artery supply the blood

    the ovaries are surrounded by a fibrous tinuca albuginea

    • Two poorly define regions:
    • -cortex: ovarian follicles
    • -medulla: large blood vessels and nerves
  5. What is a follicle?
    • an Immature egg (oocyte) surrounded by
    • -follicle cells (one cell layer thick)
    • -granulosa cells (when more than one layer is present)
  6. What are the stages of development for a follicle?
    Primordial follicle: squamouslike follicle cells + oocyte

    Primary follicle: cuboidal or columnat follicle cells + oocyte

    Secondary follicle: contains fluid-filled space between granulosa cells; coalesces to form a central antrum

    Vesicular (Graafin or tertiary) follicle: fluid filled antrum forms; follicle bulges from ovary surface

    Ovulation: ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle

    Corpus luteum develops from ruptured follicle after ovulation
  7. What makes up the female Duct system?
    • uterine (fallopian) tubes or oviducts
    • uterus
    • vagina
  8. Describe the uterine tubes
    • Ampulla: distal expansion with infundibulum near ovary
    • -usual site of fertilization

    • ciliated fimbrae of infundibulum create current to move oocyte into uterine tube
    • -oocyte is carried along by perialsis and ciliary motion
    • -non ciliated cells nourish the oocyte and the sperm

    isthmus: constricted region where the tube joins the uterus

    • mesosalpinx: mesentery that supports the uterine tubes
  9. Describe the anatomy of the uterus
    • body: major portion
    • fundus: rounded superior region
    • isthmus: narrowing inferior region
    • cervix: narrow neck, or outlet; projects into the vagina

    • cervial canal communicates with:
    • -vagina via the external os
    • -uterine body via the internal os

    cervical glands secrete mucus that blocks sperm entry except during midcycle

    function of the uterus is to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
  10. What supports the uterus?
    mesometrium--lateral support: portion of the broad ligament

    lateral cervial (cardinal) ligament: from the  cervix and superior part of the vagina to the walls of the pelvis

    uterosacrol ligaments secture the uterus to the sacrum

    round ligaments bind to the anterior wall
  11. What are the peritoneal pouches?
    • sacs of peritoneum exist around the uterus
    • -vesicouterine pouch between the bladder and the uterus
    • -rectouterine pouch between the rectum and the uterus
  12. What are the three layers of the uterine wall?
    • 1.Perimetrum: serous layer (visceral peritoneum)
    • 2. Myometrium: interlacing layers of smooth muscle which contracr during childbirth
    • 3. Endometrium: mucosal lining where fertilized egg implants

    • Endometrium has 2 layers:
    • Stratum functionalis (functional layer)
    • -changes in reponse to the ovarian hormone cycles
    • -is shed during menstruation (every 28 days)
    • Stratum basalis (basal layer)
    • -forms new functionalis after menstruation
    • -unresponsive to ovarian hormones
  13. What is the uterine vascular supply?
    • uterine arteries: arise from internal iliacs
    • arcuate arteries: in the myometrium
    • Radial branches int he endometrium branch into:
    • -spiral arteries-->stratum functionalis
    • -straight arteries--> stratum basalis

    • *spasms of the spiral arteries leaad to the shedding of the stratum functionalis
  14. What is the vagina?
    birth canal and organ of copulation

    extends between the bladder and the rectum from the cervix to the exterior

    urethra embedded in the anterior wall
  15. What are the layers of the vagina?
    • 1. Fibroelastic adventitia
    • 2.Smooth muscle muscularis
    • 3. Stratified squamous mucosa with rugae

    • -mucosa near vaginal orifice form an incomplete partition called the hymen
    • -vaginal fornix: upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix
  16. What are the external genitalia?
    Also called the vulva or the pudendum

    • -Mons pubis: fatty area overlying pubic symphysis
    • -labia majora: hair-covered, fatty skin folds
    • -labia minora: skin folds lying within the labia majora
    • *vestibule: recess between labia minora

    • Greater vestibular glands:
    • -homologous to the bulborethral glands
    • -release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication

    • clitoris: erectile tissue hooded by a prepuce
    • -glans clitoris is the exposed portion

    • perineum: diamond shaped region between the pubic arch and the coccyx
    • -bordered by the ischial tuberosities laterally
  17. What are the mammary glands?
    • modified sweat glands consisting of 15-25 lobes
    • areola: pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
    • suspensory ligaments: attach the breast to underlying muscle
    • lobules within lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk

    milk-->lactiferous ducts-->lactiferous sinuses-->open to the outside of the nipple
  18. What are the risk factors for breast cancer? How is it detected and treated?
    Usually arises from the epithelial cells of small ducts

    • Risk factors include:
    • -early onset of menstruation and late menopause
    • -no pregnancies or first pregnancy late in life
    • -family history of breast cancer

    ~10% are due to hereditary defects, including mutations to the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2

    70% of women with breast cancer have no known risk factors

    early detection via self-examinatino and mamography

    • treatment depends on the characteristics of the lesion:
    • -radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery folloed by irradiated and chemotherapy
  19. What is oogenesis?
    production of the female gametes
  20. When does oogenesis begins?
    • Begins in the fetal period
    • -oogonia (2n ovarian stem cells) multiply by mitosis and store nutrients
    • -primary oocytes develop in primordial follicles
    • -primary oocytes begin meiosis by stall in prophase I
  21. What happens with oogenesis each month?
    each month after puberty, a few primordial oocytes are activated

    • one is selected each moth to resume meiosis I
    • -This results in 2 haploid cells
    • 1. Secondary Oocyte
    • 2. First Polar Body

    • The Secondary Oocyte arrest in metaphase II and is ovulated
    • -if penetrated by sperm, the second oocyte completes meiosis II, yielding
    • 1. ovum (the functional gamete)
    • 2. second polar body
  22. What is the ovarian cycle?
    • monthly series of events associated with the maturation of an egg
    • -about 28 days

    • 1. follicular phase: oeriod of follicle growth (days 1-14)
    • 2. ovulation occurs midcycle
    • 3. Luteal phase: period of corpus luteum activity (days 14-28)
  23. What is the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
    • Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle
    • 1. The primordial follicle is activated
    • -squamous like cells become cuboidal

    • 2. Follicle enlarges to become a primary follicle
    • 3. Primary follicle become a secondary follicle
    • -stratified epithelium (granulosa cells) form around oocyte
    • -granulosa cells and oocyte guide one another's development

    • 4. Secondary follicle becomes a late secondary follicle
    • -connective tissue (theca folliculi) and granulosa cells cooperate to produce estrogens
    • -zona pellucida forms around the oocyte
    • -fluid begins to accumulate

    • 5. Late secondary follicle becomes a vesicular follicle
    • -antrum forms and expands to isolate the oocyte with its corona radiata on the stalk
    • -vesicular follicle bulges fromt he external surface of the ovary
    • -the primary oocyte completes meiosis I
  24. What occurs during ovulation?
    Ovary wall ruptures and expels the secondary oocyte with the scorona radiata

    Mittleschmerz: twinge of pain sometimes felt at ovulation

    1-2% of ovulation release more than one secondary oocyte, which, if fertilized is where fraternal twins come from
  25. What happens during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?
    • Ruptured follicle collapses
    • granulosa cells and internal thecal cells form corpus lutem

    corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen

    If no pregnants, the corpus luteum degenerates into a corpus albicans in 10 days

    • if pregnancy occurs, corpus luteum produces hormones until the placenta takes over at about 3 months
  26. How is the ovarian cycle established?
    • During childhood until puberty:
    • -ovaries secrete small amounts of estrogens
    • -estrogens inhibi release of GnRH

    • At Puberty:
    • -Leptin from adipose tissue decreases estrogen inhibition
    • -GnRH, FSH, and LH are released
    • -in about 4 years, an adult cyclic pattern is achieved and menarche occurs
  27. What are the hormonal interactions at the beginning og the 28 day ovarian cycle?
    • Day 1: GnRH--> release of FSH and LH
    • -FSH and LH--> growth of several follicles and estrogen release
    • -rise in estrogen levels
    • *inhibit the release of FSH and LH
    • *stimulate synthesis and storage of FSH and LH
    • *enhance further estrogen output (positive feedback)

    • Estrogen output by the vesicular follicle increases
    • High estrogen levels have a position feedback effect on pituitary at midcycle
    • Sudden LH surge at day 14
  28. What are the hormonal effects of the LH surge on day 14 of the ovarian cycle? What are the functions of the corpus luteum?
    Completion of Meiosis I (Secondary oocyte continues on to metaphase II)

    triggers ovulation

    transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteu

    • Functions of the corpus luteum:
    • -produces inhibin, progesterone, and estrogen
    • -these hormones inhibit FSH and LH release
    • -declining FSH and LH ends luteal activity and inhibits follicle development
  29. What are the hormonal interactions at the end of the ovarian cycle?
    • Days 26-28: corpus luteum degenerates and ovarian hormone levels drop sharply
    • -ends the blockade of FSH and LH
    • -cycle restarts
  30. What are the 3 phases of the Mestrual phase (uterine phase)?
    Cyclical changes in the endometrium in response to ovarian hormones

    • 1. Days 1-5: mestrual phase
    • 2. days 6-14: proliferative (preovulatory) phase
    • 3. Days 15-28: secretory (postovulatory phase) (contant 14 day length)
  31. Describe the Mestrual Phase
    Ovarian hormones are at their lowest levels

    gonadotropins are beginning to rise

    stratum functionalis is shed and the menstrual flow begins
  32. Describe the Proliferative phase
    estrogen levels prompt generation of new functional layer and increased synthesis of progesterone receptors in theendometrium

    glands enlarge and spiral arteries increase in number
  33. Describe the secretory phase
    • progesterone levels prompt
    • -further development of endometrium
    • -glandular secretion of glycogen
    • -formation of cervical mucus plug
  34. What happens in the uterine cycle if feritlization does not occur?
    • -corpus luteum degenerates
    • -progesterone levels fall
    • -spiral arteries kink and spasm
    • -endometrial cells begin to die
    • -spiral arteries constrict again, then relax and open wide
    • -rush of blood fragments weakened capillary beds and the functional layer sloughs
  35. What are the effects of estrogen?
    Promotes oogenesis and the follicle growth in the ovary

    exert anabolic effects on the female reproductive tract

    support the rapid but short-lived growth at puberty

    • Induce secondary sex characteristics:
    • -growth of the breasts
    • -increased deposit of subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts)
    • -widening and lightening of the pelvis

    • metabolic effects:
    • -maintain low total blood cholesterol and high HDL levels
    • -facilitates calcium uptake
  36. What are the effects of progesterone?
    progesterone works with estrogen to establish and regulate the uterine cycle

    • effects of placental progesterone during pregnancy
    • -inhibits uterine motility
    • -helps prepare the breasts to lactation
  37. What is the female sexual response?
    initiated by touch and psychological stimuli

    The clitoris, vaginal mucosa, and breasts engorge with blood

    vestibular gland secretions lubricate the vestibule

    orgasm is accompanied by muscle tension, increase in pulse rate and bp, and rythmic contractions of the uterus

    females do not have a refractory period after orgasma nd can experience multiple orgams

    orgasm is not essential for conception