BI 233 A&P Lab-Ex. 41
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- Clear, pale yellow or amber d/t presence of urochrome
- Depends on concentration--solutes = deeper yellow
- Depends on diet
- Pigment metabolite d/t the destruction of hemoglobin (via bilirubin/bile pigments)
- Provides the normal yellow color of urine
What would give urine a "fruity, acetone" smell?
Elevated ketones from a condition such as uncontrolled DM
What would give urine a "foul" smell?
What would give urine an "ammonia-like" smell?
Bacterial action if urine is left standing
What are the normal constituents of urine?
- Uric acid
- Amorphous Crystals
What normal constituents of urine occur in much smaller and highly variable amounts?
- HCO3- (and H+)
- (Abnormally high concentrations may indicate a pathological condition)
What may occur in trace amounts in the urine?
- Ketones--after a long fast; d/t carb diet
- RBCs--in males after strenuous workout
- Protein--in pregnant females; in males after strenuous workout
- Sperm--in males if 1st urination after ejaculation
What is normal pH of urine?
4.5-8.0 (avg 6.0)
What would increase the urine pH?
- High vegetable diet
- "Alkaline Ash Foods"
What would decrease pH of urine?
- High protein/whole wheat diet
- "Acid Ash Foods"
What pathological process might increase urine pH?
- Bacterial infection
- (vit. C interferes w/UTI testing)
What is the normal specific gravity of urine?
- SG (distilled H2O)=1.000 d/t 1 mL weighs 1 g
What is indicated by a higher specific gravity of urine?
chance of stones
What are abnormal constituents of urine?
- Nitrites--d/t bacteria breaking down protein/nitrogenous wastes
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