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What should puppies look like and how should they act?
- puppies should be fat and sleek
- should sleep contentedly and nurse frequently
When should we monitor body weight of puppies?
- at birth
- 12 hours later
- daily for 2 weeks
Failure to gain weight is often the first sign of _____.
When do the puppies eyes open?
12 - 14 days old
When do the puppies ears open?
10 - 14 days old
When do the puppies eyes changef rom a blue-gray color to their adult color?
4 - 6 weeks old
When do puppies get their canine teeth?
most get canines by 3 weeks old
What do we need to exam on a physical exam of a puppy?
- gross abnormalities
- muscle tone
- tail, anus, genitals
- check urine and feces
What about the mouth should we check on a physical exam of a puppy?
- mucous membrane color
- cleft palate
- sucking reflex
What about the skin should we check on a physical exam of a puppy?
- hair cover
What about the breathing should we check on a physcial exam of a puppy?
should be regular and unlabored
What about the heart should we check on a physical exam of a puppy?
- auscultation is difficult due to high rate
- should be over 200 bpm
What about the limbs do we need to check on a physical exam of a puppy?
- joint mobility
- tendon contracture
- wrapped cord that could have caused atrophy
What about the abdomen should we check on a physcial exam of a puppy?
- normally enlarged after nursing
- if enlarged and puppy is restless, weak, and crying - could be ill or have gas
What about the umbilicus should we check on a physical exam of a puppy?
- muscle wall abnormality
What about the anus should we check on a physical exam of a puppy?
patent, swollen, red
How do we do a neurological evaulation?
- mental status
- reflexes, gait, posture
- cranial nerves
- motor system
How do we check the mental status of a puppy?
- gauge by response to external stimuli - touch, sound, quality of cry
- gauge by how puppies sleep - normally sleepin a pile, usually don't sleep alone for 5 - 6 weeks
What type of reflexs do we need to check?
- anogenital reflex
- respiration reflex
- pain perception
- righting reflex
- rooting reflex
What is the anogenital reflex? How do we check it? When is this reflex present?
- reflex for urination and defectation
- gently rub rear end with warm damp cotton ball
- present until about 18 - 28 days old
How do we check the respiration reflex? When is this present?
- stimulate abdominal or genital area - puppy should inhale
- present for the first 3 days
How do we check the pain perception? When is this present?
- pinch toes and puppy should cry
- present at birth
How do we check the righting reflex? When is this present?
- place puppy on his side - will flip onto his sternum
- test both sides
- present soon after birth
How do we check the rooting reflex? When does this reflex go away?
- cup hand around muzzle, puppy should root or push forward
- gone by 25 days old
What are the reflexes we check for the cranial nerves?
- blink reflex
- withdrawal reflex
- sucking reflex
- tongue evaulation
- gag reflex
- startle reflex
How do we do the blink reflex and when is it present?
- touch face between nose and eye - puppy should blink
- present even before eyes are open
How do we check the withdrawal reflex?
- touch nostrils
- puppy should pull back
How do we check the sucking reflex?
- put your finger in puppy's mouth, puppy should try to suckle
- reflex lasts for 4 weeks
How do we do the tongue evaluation?
put your finger in puppy's mouth - tongue should move when touched
How do we do the gag reflex? When is this reflex present?
- put object in back of puppy's throat - this should cause the puppy to gag
- present by 10 days old
How do we check the startle reflex? When do we check this reflex?
- drop something or make a loud noise
- no good until about 3 weeks old because they do not open their ears for 10 - 14 days after birth
How do we check the motor system?
- wheelbarrow reflex
- hopping reflex
- placing reflex, visual placing
- weight support
- tone - flexor tone, extensor tone
- flexor reflex
How do we check the wheelbarrow reflex? When do we check this?
- make puppy walk on front legs
- should hold up head and use both front legs
- can do this at 4 - 5 days old
How do we check the hopping reflex? When can they do this?
- make puppy support weight on one limb, then make him hop on that limb - forward and laterally
- present in forelimbs at 2 - 4 days old
- present in rear limbs at 6 - 8 days old
How do we do the placing reflex? When can they do this?
- hold puppy beside table, blindfolded, facing, it, lower than the top
- bring him up and twards the table so his feet hit the edge
- he should put his feet on the top of the table
- present in forelimbs at 2 - 4 days old
- present in rear limbs at 5 - 9 days old
When can a puppy support their own weight?
- forelimbs: 7 - 10 days old
- rear limbs: 10 - 24 days old
- support own weight at about 16 days old
When can a puppy walk?
- jerky walking at 18 - 21 days old
- coordinated walking betwen 3 and 4 weeks old
What is the flexor tone?
- puppy flexes spine, limps and curls up into a ball
- dominates in first 4 days
- crossed extensor reflex present up to 3 weeks old - pinch left leg, and puppy will extend right leg
What are some common medical problems we see with neonatals?
- internal parasitism (diarrhea, hookworm anemia)
- external parasitism (flea anemia)
What are some common birth defects we see with neonatals?
- cleft palate
- cerebellar hypoplasia
When should a puppy's weight double birth weight?
should double birth weight in 8 - 10 days
What should a neonatal puppy's respiratory and heart rate be? What should their urine specific gravity by?
- respiratory rate: 15 - 35 bpm
- heart rate: about 220 bpm
- urine specific gravity: 1.006 - 1.017
Do neonatal puppies have a shivering reflex?
What should a puppies temperature be in the first week? Second week? Third week?
- first week: 94 - 97
- second week: 97 - 99
- third week: 101.5 - normal adult temperature
When do we use pediatric anesthesia?
under 6 weeks old
What procedures would require pediatric anesthesia?
- trauma - lacerations, fractures
- correct congenital problems - cleft palate
- cosmetic - ear crop
What is the problem with using injectable anesthesia drugs with neonatals?
- neonates have greater body water volume which results in faster distribution of drug throughout body
- smaller fat stores to take up and slowly redistribute drug
- slower liver metabolism due to undeveloped enzyme systems
- less developed renal function
- drugs hit them harder, faster, and effects last longer
Do neonatals take up inhalation anesthetics quickly?
- yes due to higher respiratory rate
- may go down faster
What is the choice of anesthetic agents for neonatals?
- local analgesics
When should we avoid using atropine and why?
animals under 8 weeks old because it could decrease heart rate
Which sedatives should we use and which ones should we avoid?
- avoid: phenothiazines (acepromazine), xylazine, ketamine
- use: opioids
Why should we avoid using phenothiazines (acepromazine)?
causes hypotension and prolonged depression of neonates
Why should we avoid using xylazine?
causes cardiovascular depression and prolonged sedation
Why should we avoid using ketamine?
causes muscular rigidity, delirium - may cause convulsions
Why are opioids okay to use? What side effects do they have?
- okay to use because they have a reverser agent
- can cause apnea, respiratory depression
If we have to use a mask to induce our patient with inhalants, which kind of mask should we use? Why?
a clear one to watch for vomiting or excess salivation
Which type of endotracheal tube is best?
Which type of anesthetic circuit is best?
- Ayre's T-piece
- avoid circle system - causes lots of resistance to gas flow and makes it harder for the puppy to breathe
How do we keep the puppy's body temperature up during anesthesia?
- towels, hot water bottles, warm IV fluids
- can submerge puppy in warm water in plastic bag after surgery
How can we administer fluids to a neonatal puppy since their veins are so small?
- jugular vein can be used
- intraosseous catheter is possible
What kind of fluids can we use to avoid a neonateal becoming hypoglycemic?
Should we turn on the fluids to a large bag and leave the puppy hooked up to it?
- no, don't want to over load the puppy with fluids, calculate and measure fluids out
- can use a burette to measure
A puppy without access to water for 24 hours can become ____ dehydrated.
Offer puppies and kitten water up to _____ before anesthesia and as soon as possible afterwards.
What life threatening things do we need to watch for in a puppy after anesthesia?
- respiratory depression