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what are STIs?
Sexually transmittied Infections, also called STDS or VDs
The single most important cause of reproductive disorders
What is Gonorrhea?
Bacterial infection of mucosae of the reproductive and urinary tracts
spread by contact with genital, anal and pharyngeal mucosae
- Male-urethritis, painful urination, discharge of pus
- Female- 20% show no symptoms, abdominal discomfort, vaginal discharge, or abnormal uterine bleeding
- *can result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility
antibiotics, but resistant strains are becoming more prevalent
What is syphilis?
- Bacterial infection transmitted sexually or contracted congenitally
- -infected fetuses are stillborn or die shortly after birth
Infection is asymptomatic for 2-3 weeks
A painless chancre appears at the site of the infection anf then disappears in a few weeks
- If untreated, secondary signs appear several weeks later for 3-12 weeks, and then disappear
- -include skin rash, fever, joint pain
The latent period may or may not progress into teriary syphilis, characterized by gummas (lesions of teh CNS, blood vessels, bones, and skin)
- Most common bacterial STI in the states
- -responsible for 25-50% of all diagnosed cases of pelvic inflammatory disease
urethritis; penile and vaginal discharges; abdominal, rectal, or testicular pain; painful intercours; irregular menses
can cause arthritis and urinary tract infections in men, and sterility in women
What are gential warts?
caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV)
second most comin STI in the states
increases the risk of cancer in infected body regions
What is genital herpes?
Viral infection with no cure
caused by human herpes virus type 2
- characterized by latent periods and flare-ups
- -congential herpes can cause malformations of a fetus
treatment: acyclovir and other antiviral drugs
What determines the sex of a baby?
- One of the 23 pairs of choromosomes in the body cells are sex chormosomes :X & Y
- -all other 22 pairs are called autosomes
- Females are XX and each egg contains an X
- Males are XY and each sperm contains either X or Y
The SRY gene on the Y chromosme initiates the testes development and maleness
What is the sexually indifferent stage of sexual development?
Gonads begin development in the 5th week as gonadal ridges
Parasmesonephric (Mullerian) ducts (future female ducts) form lateral to the mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts (future male ducts)
primordial germ cells migrate to the gonadal ridges to provide germ cells destined to become spermatogonia or oogonia
Gondas begin development in the 7th week for males, 8th week for females
How and when do the gonads descend?
- About 2 months before birth
- -testosterone stimulates the migration of testes towards the scrotum
Ovaries also descend, but are stopped by the broad ligament at the pelvic brim
- Gubernanulum: fibrous cord from each testis to the scotum or from the ovary to labium majus; guides the descent
What happens at puberty?
- In response to rising levels of gonadal homrones
- -reproduuctive organs grow to adult size and become functional
- -secondary sex chraceristics appear
earliest time that reproduction is possible
What happens during menopause?
- Occurs when the menses have ceased for an entire year
- There is no male equivilent for menopause
- Declining estrogen levels lead to:
- -atrophy of reproductive organs and breasts
- -irritability and depression in some
- -hot flashes as skin blood vessels undergo intense vasodialation
- -gradual thinning of the skin and bone loss
- -increased total blood cholesterol levels and falling HDL