International Political Economy

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gandalfthegrey
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187750
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International Political Economy
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2012-12-08 04:29:59
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Political Science
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IPE
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  1. IPE is a social science field of study that attempts to understand ___________ and _______ problems using an eclectic interdisciplinary array of _______ tools and ______ perspectives.
    international; global; analytical; theoretical
  2. This theory focuses on the phenomenon of international _______ and analyzes the _______ effects of neo-colonialism.
    inequalities; universal
  3. What is IPE a combination of?
    International relations and political economy.
  4. What does it concentrate on?
    The relationship between political forces and economic interactions.
  5. IPE is the study of a set of related ________.
    problems
  6. What does the traditional IPE problematique include an analysis of?
    • The political economy of international trade
    • International finance
    • North-South relations
    • Multinational corporations
    • Hegemony
  7. True/False: IPE is today widely appreciated and the subject of much theoretical research and applied policy analysis. If false, why?
    False.
  8. What clearly affects international trade and monetary flows?
    The political actions of nation-states.
  9. That, in turn, affects the environment in which nation-states make _____ choices and entrepreneurs make ______ choices.
    political; economic
  10. The many meanings of political economy includes: (3 meanings)
    • Neo-Marxian approaches
    • Liberal approaches
    • Realist approaches
  11. Why did scholars divorce politics from economics in the past?
  12. Up until that point: there had been theoretical heritage in ______ academe;
    Western
  13. Politics and economics had been analyzed together by Adam Smith and David Ricardo in the _____ century, by ____ in the late 19th century.
    18th; Marx
  14. When did politics and economics evolve as separate disciplines?
    The 19th century.
  15. What was the reason for this separation?
    Liberalism.
  16. The theoretical assumptions of liberalism include: production, distribution, and consumption operate under _________ laws;
    natural
  17. natural harmony exists and works best with _______ political interference;
    minimal
  18. economic activity is preserved of ________ ________, not __________;
    private enterprise; government
  19. ______ does not obey natural laws.
    politics
  20. Why does politics not obey natural laws?
    It involves power, influence, public decision-making.
  21. Contributing facors to the formal division between economics and politics in the 20th Century
  22. The Cold War as a factor
  23. Decision makers and observers were preoccupied with ____ issues.
    security
  24. These issues include: the USSR's domination of _______ _______ and the development of ______ nuclear capability;
    Eastern Europe; Soviet
  25. the division of ________;
    Germany
  26. the forging of __________;
    NATO
  27. Factors undermining the separation of economics from politics
  28. Factors undermining the separation of economic from politcs: The ____-Soviet split;
    Sino
  29. __________ of ties within the Atlantic alliance;
    loosening
  30. East-West ________;
    detente
  31. U.S. and Western Europe no longer preoccupied with their _____ security;
    military
  32. long war in ______ ended;
    Vietnam
  33. ______ freed their colonies;
    Europeans
  34. the _______ countries are now at peace.
    developed
  35. How do we describe IPE since the 19th century?
  36. What has IPE been fragmented into? (2 things)
    International politics and international economics.
  37. What did economists ignore?
    The role of political facots in international economic process and policy.
  38. What do students of international politics ignore?
    Economic issues in relations among states.
  39. How economics politics
  40. Economic resources are said to determine ______ and _____ power.
    strategic; international
  41. What determines a country's military strength?
    It's GNP.
  42. How politics influence economics
  43. What is the first way politics influence economics?
    The political system shapes the economic system.
  44. The international economic system is determined by the _______ and _______ of the international political system.
    structure; operation
  45. What is the second way politics influence economics?
    Political concerns often shape economic policy.
  46. Economic policies are frequently dicated by overriding _________ interests.
    political
  47. What are two examples of these overriding political interests?
    • Protectionism
    • Unemployment
  48. What is the third way in which politics influence economics?
    International economic relations themselves are political relations.
  49. An example of this would be __________ transfers.
    technology
  50. Production, distribution, and consumption have throughout modern history been affected by _______ and _____ forces.
    diplomatic; strategic
  51. Production, buying and selling were affected by ________, __________, and ____________.
    laws; customs; governments
  52. The origins of the dominance of the political over the economic goes back to the ______ period, in the ______ -_______ century.
    mercantilist; 15th-18th
  53. Define mercantilism.
    The economic doctrine that government control of foreign trade is of  paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country.
  54. What does mercantilism diminish the importance of?
    Economics
  55. Today, what is mercantilism considered?
    An ancient method that does not function today.
  56. There are two principal characteristics behind the origins of dominance of the political over the Europe: The first principal characteristic is the rise of powerful nation states from the ruins of ________ universalism and _______ particularism;
    medieval; local
  57. Politics caused the rise of ________ states and emerged out of the struggle against internal and external ________.
    power; enemies
  58. What is considered external balancing?
    Forming alliances.
  59. What is considered internal balancing?
    Using your own resources.
  60. The second principal is that nearly equal states did what?
    Competed against each other.
  61. Since power distribution was nearly equal, any development like economic change could be _________.
    detrimental
  62. Thus, economics cannot be _______ from politics or economics ________ to politics.
    autonomous; subjected
  63. If you're country starts later, why are you more aggressive?
    Because you are trying to catch up.
  64. The economic realm became the main arena for political conflict - __________ and _________ competition.
    political; military
  65. What was the pursuit of state power carried out through?
    Through the pursuit national economic power, wealth
  66. Competition was translated into _________ competition.
    economic
  67. What are all economic transactions regulated for the purpose of ?
    State power.
  68. Today economic competition is bilateral, which means...?
    Both sides gain.
  69. What system dominates today?
    Free trade.
  70. What mercantilists stood for
  71. Mercantilists stood for: wealth and power closely associated with possession of _________ metals;
    precious
  72. governments aimed at favorable balance of ______ to accumulate these metals;
    trade
  73. controls of _________ movement of precious metals;
    metals
  74. and regulation of individual and general commercial ________ through tariffs, quotas.
    transactions
  75. States gave subsidies to export and import _______ industries and sometimes engaged in production or trade.
    substitution
  76. Mercantilism and colonialism
  77. Mercantilists states acquired colonies with the goals of favorable _____ balances and self-_______.
    tade; sufficiency
  78. Colonies existed to accomodate the ______ interests of the _______/_______.
    mercantile; metropole/center
  79. What did those policies lead the American colonies to do?
    To rebel against England.
  80. Free trade linked to political power
  81. In the 19th century, Great Britain became politically dominant when it followed a ______ trade.
    liberal
  82. True/False: When British power declined in the late 19th century, the liberal system declined. If false, why?
    True.
  83. Britain's hegemonic dominance suffered after a number of ________ governments had reinstituted various forms of _________ trade programs in the last decades of the ______ century.
    European; protectionist; 19th
  84. These powers included...(2 countries)
    The U.S. and Germany.
  85. The decline of British economic dominance was linked to: disruptive influence of the emergence of modern _______;
    nationalism
  86. equal ________ relations and new ________ led to a highly competitive international system.
    power; nationalism
  87. Nationalism has it's own approach to economics in which ________ are discouraged.
    imports
  88. Corporations are a provocative policy of _____ traders.
    free
  89. European political domination led to imperial economic domination
  90. In just a few decades, much of _____ and all of _________ was divided up be Western Europe and the United States.
    Asia; Africa
  91. This is a ______ imperialism.
    new
  92. As in the days of mercantilism, colonies were integrated into an international economic system designed to serve the interest of the ___________/___________.
    metropole/core
  93. The political victors controlled ________ and _______, regulated ______ and ________, and manipulated ________.
    investment; trade; currency; production; labor
  94. Why did the postwar economic system (or Pax Americana) break down?
  95. This breakdown was due to: the changing ______ scene in the 19___s;
    political; 70s
  96. the decline of ________ power;
    American
  97. increasing _______ (competition from other countries) in the West;
    pluralism
  98. and a superpower _________.
    detente
  99. Interest group conflicts occur between: groups favoring low _____ barriers and those advocating ________;
    tariff; protection
  100. advocates of foreign _______ assistance and its opponents;
    economic
  101. and those favoring energy ________ and those advocating reliance on _________ sources of energy;
    independence; foreign
  102. Economic policy is the outcome of a polititcal bargaining process
  103. How economics affect politics
  104. What has been used as an economic tool of political warfare throughout history?
    Embargoes.
  105. France applied an embrago to weaken Great Britain during the _________ wars.
    Napoleonic
  106. League of Nations called for an embargo of _____ after its invasion of Ethiopia in 1935.
    Italy
  107. The 1973 Arab oil embargo of the United States and the Netherlands was an effort to alter their pro-_______ foreign policy.
    Israeli
  108. Current day examples would be ______ against North Korea, Iran, and Syria.
    sanctions
  109. What is another familiar economic tool used for strategic and diplomatic ends?
    Foreign aid
  110. What happened under the Marshall Plan?
    The United States gave $17 billion in outright grants to Western European countries to rebuild their economies after WWII.
  111. What was the rationale behind the Marshall Plan?
    It was designed to make Western Europe impervious to aggression by the Soviet Union.
  112. What has foreign economic assistance to underdeveloped countries been used for?
    To win friends for the West or the East during the Cold War.
  113. Foreign aid has also been used by former colonial powers to retain ______ influence in those newly independent former colonies.
    political
  114. Early Intellectual Exponents of IPE
  115. Early IPE thinkers include: (2 names)
    • Adam Smith
    • Karl Marx
  116. What are the three political economy traditions in political science?
    • Liberalism
    • Realism
    • Marxism
  117. Liberalists believed that economics were dictated by the "_______ _______", or natural law.
    invisible law
  118. Realists believed in ___________, which is making money for the sake of the state.
    mercantilism
  119. Liberalism
  120. The role of voluntary exchange and markets is seen as ______ and ________.
    efficient; moral
  121. Free trade and free movement of capital will ensure investment flows to ________ areas.
    profitable
  122. Hence the ______ world.
    underdeveloped
  123. Liberalism allows countries to benefit from their _________ advantage.
    comparative
  124. Liberal Policies
  125. The best state is _______ one;
    weak
  126. _______ regulations;
    limited
  127. fewer _____ goods;
    public
  128. ______ taxes;
    lower
  129. ____ trade;
    free
  130. _________-_______, which allows the economy to function as it wishes.
    laissez-faire
  131. Results of Free Trade
  132. Free trade: causes _______ to arise spontaneously;
    markets
  133. fosters ______ among states;
    harmony
  134. creates peace and cooperation in competitive & _______ systems.
    anarchical
  135. Mercantilism
  136. Mercantilists share _______ views in international relations.
    realist
  137. The focus on world-economy is as an aerna of competition among states seeking to maximize relative _______ and __________.
    strength; power
  138. The aim of every state is to maximize ______ and ________.
    wealth; independence
  139. States seek to ensure their _______-_______ in key strategic industries and commodities.
    self-sufficiency
  140. Mercantilists use ________ policies.
    protectionist
  141. True/False: Mercantilism encourages imports over exports. If false, why?
    False. It encourages exports over imports.
  142. True/False: It encourages industrialization over agriculture. If false, why?
    True.
  143. Mercantilism protects _______ production.
    domestic
  144. Traditional mercantilism argues that surplus balance of _________ is critical to protect national interest.
    payments
  145. What is a modern version of mercantilism?
    Statism.
  146. Statism is the subordination of ecnomic activities to the goal of _______ __________.
    state; building
  147. Instruments of Restrictive Trade Policy
  148. Tariffs, which direct fees levied on _______.
    imports
  149. Subsidies, which is payment to a domestic producer, generated from ________.
    taxes
  150. Import quotas and voluntary export restraints, which is a restriction on the _______ of some goods imported into a country.
    quantity
  151. Marxism
  152. Marxism sees the world economy as what?
    An arena of competition.
  153. ______ is the driving force in world-economy.
    Capitalism
  154. World-economic relations is a struggle between what?
    "The oppressor and the oppressed"
  155. Competition in international relations is a struggle between the ____ and ______.
    core; periphery
  156. The core is the ___________ countries, and periphery is _________ countries.
    industrialized; developing
  157. What is underdevelopment a result of?
    Dependency on the core.
  158. Analytical Perspectives on IPE - Marxism
  159.  Marxists focus on ______ and _____ forces.
    classes; social
  160. What is the nature of economic relations?
    Conflictual (zero-sum game)
  161. When it comes to the relationship between economics and politics, marxists believe that ________ drive _________.
    economics; politics

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