the numer of protons, which determines what element it is.
the sum of the number ofp rotons and neutrons combined.
forms of an element that differ in mass.
substances that contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio .
an attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges. the electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together. CHARGED ATOMS ARE IONS.
forms when two atoms share 1 or more paisr of outer shell electrons.
what are the two types of covalent bonds?
non-polar, and polar.
in a non-polar bond:
electrons are shared equally between two atoms.
in a polar bond:
electrons are shared unequally.
Atoms held together by covalent bonds form....
what is a hydrogen bond?
A bond formed by the attraction of a partially positive hydrogen atom (in a polar covalent bond) to a partially negative atom in a polar covalent bond of some other molecule.
what are organic compounds?
carbon based molecules made by cells.
why is carbon a versitile atom?
because a carbon atom has 4 electrons in an outer shell that holds 8. a carbon completes its outer shell by sharing electrons with other atoms in four covalent bonds.
the simplest organic compound. organic molecules with only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
a giant molecule in a living organism. a polysaccharide or nucleic acid. most macromolecules are polymers.
chemical compound that donates or releases H+ ions to solutions.
Example: Hydrochloric Acid in water HCl → H+ + Cl
compound that accepts H+ ions and removes them from solution.
Example: Ammonia in water NH3 + H+ ↔ NH4
Basic or Alkaline solutions have
fewer H+ ions
Acidic solutions have
more H+ ions
substances that resist pH change
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units called monombers, covalently joined together in a chain.
a chemical process in which a polymer forms as monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules. one molecule of water is removed for each pair of monomers linked.
a chemical process in chich macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion.
what are the four types of polymers that are found in cells?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.
the smallest kind of sugar molecule; a single uni tsugar, also known as a simple sugar, they are the building blocks of more complex sugars and polysaccharides. fir example; the glucose found in sports drinks or the fructose in fruit.
amde from two monosaccharides with a dehydration reaction making a covalent bond.
the process that high fructose corn syrup goes through:
corn --> processed to extract starch --> broken down into glucose --> cibverted to sweeter fructose --> aded to food as high fructose corn syrup.
complex carbs with long chains of sufar units; polymers of monosaccharides.
major lipids of the plasma membrane. the head is hydrophilic due to phosphate functional groups. the tail is hydrophobic due to fatty acids.
saturated fatty acids:
lack double bonds in their hydrocarbon portions, they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, is has all three of its fatty acids saturated.
unsaturated fatty acids:
has fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens at the location og the double bond. one of the fatty acids bends where there is a boudlb bond in the carbon skeleton.