Med Terms Exam

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Med Terms Exam
2012-12-09 09:20:59
Medical Terminology Pharmacy

Med Terms Exam Dec. 10th Chapters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12, 14
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  1. -algia
    pain, painful condition
  2. dys-
    bad, difficult, or painful
  3. -ectomy
    surgical removal, cutting out
  4. hyper-
    excessive, increased
  5. hypo-
  6. -itis
  7. -osis
    abnormal condition, disease
  8. -ostomy
    the surgical creation of an artificial opening to the body surface
  9. -otomy
    cutting, surgical incision
  10. -plasty
    surgical repair
  11. -rrhage
    bleeding, abnormal excessive fluid discharge
  12. -rrhaphy
    surgical suturing
  13. -rrhea
    flow or discharge
  14. -rrhexis
  15. -sclerosis
    abnormal hardening
  16. -dynia
  17. cyan/o
  18. erythr/o
  19. leuk/o
  20. melan/o
  21. poli/o
  22. -megaly
  23. -malacia
    abnormal softening
  24. -necrosis
    tissue death
  25. -stenosis
    abnormal narrowing
  26. -centesis
    a surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid
  27. -graphy 
    the process of producing a picture or record
  28. -gram 
    a picture or record
  29. -scopy
    visual examination
  30. ab- 
    • away from
    • negative
    • absent
  31. ad-
    • toward
    • to
    • in the direction of
  32. dextr/o
    right side
  33. sinistr/o
    left side
  34. ex-
    • out of 
    • outside
    • away from
  35. in-
    • in
    • into
    • not
    • without
  36. macro-
    • large
    • abnormal size
    • long
  37. micro-
  38. mega- or megal/o
    • large
    • great
  39. olig/o
    • scanty
    • few
  40. pre-
  41. post-
  42. inter-
    between or among
  43. intra-
    within or inside
  44. sub-
    • under
    • less
    • below
  45. super- or supra-
    above or excessive
  46. -ology
    the study of
  47. laryng
    larynx or throat
  48. rhin/o
  49. ot/o
  50. lith
  51. appendic
  52. arteri/o
  53. athr/o
    plaque or fatty substance
  54. arthr/o
  55. sign
    objective evidence of disease such as a fever
  56. symptom
    subjective evidence of a disease, such as pain or a headache
  57. syndrome
    set of the signs and symptoms that occur together as part of a specific disease process.
  58. diagnosis
    the identification of a disease
  59. differential diagnosis
    • Also known as rule out
    • An attempt to determine which one of several diseases can be causing the signs and symptoms that are present
  60. Prognosis
    a prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disorder
  61. acute
    rapid onset, a severe course, and a relatively short duration
  62. chronic
    • long duration
    • can be controlled but are rarely cured
  63. remission
    the temporary, partial, or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a disease without having achieved a cure
  64. disease
    a condition in which one or more body parts are not functioning normally
  65. eponym
    disease, structure, operation, or procedure named for the person who discovered or described it first
  66. fissure
    a groove or crack-like sore of the skin
  67. fistula
    • an abnormal passage, usually between two internal organs or leading from an organ to the surface of the body
    • may be due to surgery, injury, or the draining of an abscess
  68. ileum
    the last and longest portion of the small intestine
  69. ilium
    part of the hip bone
  70. inflammation
    • a localized response to an injury or to the destruction of tissues
    • erythema (redness)
    • hyperthermia (heat)
    • edema (swelling)
    • pain
  71. laceration
    a torn or jagged wound or an accidental cut wound
  72. lesion
    a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
  73. mucous
    describes the specialized membranes that line the body cavaties
  74. mucus
    the name of the fluid secreted by mucous membranes
  75. myc/o
  76. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  77. -pathy
  78. my/o
  79. -ologist
  80. palpation
    an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistencym and location or certain body parts
  81. palpitation
    a pounding or racing heart
  82. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  83. py/o
  84. pyr/o
    fever or fire
  85. supination
    the act of rotating the arm os that the palm of the hand is forward or upward
  86. suppuration
    the formation or discharge of pus
  87. triage
    the medical screening of patients to determine their relative priority of need and the proper place of treatment
  88. trauma
    wound or injury
  89. Viral
    pertaining to a virus
  90. virile
    having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male
  91. abdominocentesis
    the surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
  92. angiography
    a radiographic study of the blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium
  93. arteriosclerosis
    abnormal hardening of the walls of an artery or arteries
  94. arthralgia
    pain in one or more joints
  95. colostomy
    the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
  96. dermatologist
    a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the skin
  97. diarrhea
    the abnormally frequent flow of watery or loose stools
  98. edema
  99. endarterial
    pertaining to the interior or lining of an artery
  100. gastralgia
    stomach pain (stomachache) 
  101. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  102. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines
  103. gastrosis
    any disease of the stomach
  104. hemorrhage
    the loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time
  105. hepatomegaly
    abnormal enlargement of the liver
  106. hypertension
    the elevation of arterial blood pressure to a level that is likely to cause damage to the cardiovascular system
  107. hyptotension
    lower than normal arterial blood pressure
  108. infection
    invasion of the body by a pathogenic organism
  109. interstitial
    between but not within the parts of a tissue
  110. intramuscular
    within the muscle
  111. malaise
    a feeling of general discomfort often the first indication of an infection or disease
  112. mycosis
    any abnormal condition or discharge caused by a fungua
  113. myelopathy
    any pathologic change or disease in the spinal cord
  114. myopathy
    any pathologic change or disease of a muscle tissue
  115. myorrhexis
    ther rupture or tearing of a muscle
  116. natal
    pertaining to birth
  117. neonatology
    the study of newborns
  118. neurorrhaphy
    surgically suturingtogether the ends of a severed nerve
  119. otorhinolaryngology
    study of the ears, nose, and throat
  120. ploiomyelitis
    a viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  121. pyoderma
    any acute, inflammatory, pus forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo
  122. pyrosis
  123. tonsillitis
    inflammation of the tonsills 
  124. aden/o
  125. adip/o
  126. anter/o
    before, front
  127. caud/o
    lower part of the body
  128. cephal/o
  129. cyt/o -cyte
  130. end- endo-
    in, within, inside
  131. exo-
    out of
  132. hist/o or histi/o
  133. path/o or -pathy
    disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
  134. plas/i, plas/o, or -plasia
    development, growth, formation
  135. poster/o
    behind, toward the back
  136. -stasis or -static
    control, maintenance of a constant level
  137. Anatomy
    the study of the structures of the body
  138. Physiology
    the study of the functions of the structures of the body
  139. vertical plane
    an up-and-down plane that is a right angle to the horizon
  140. sagittal plane
    a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
  141. midsagittal
    • the midline
    • the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
  142. frontal plane
    a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
  143. horizontal plane
    a flat crosswise plane, such as the horizon
  144. transverse plane
    a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
  145. Ventral
    refers to the front, or belly side, of the organ or body
  146. Dorsal
    refers to the back of the organ or body
  147. anterior
    situated in the front or the front/forward part of an organ
  148. posterior
    situated in the back or the back part of an organ
  149. superior
    uppermost, above, or toward the head
  150. inferior
    lowermost, below, or toward the feet
  151. Cephalic
    toward the head
  152. caudal
    toward the lower part of the body
  153. proximal
    situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
  154. Distal
    situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
  155. medial
    ther direction toward, or nearer, the midline
  156. lateral
    the direction toward, or nearer, the side of the body
  157. Homeostasis
    the processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
  158. abdominal cavity
    contains primarily the major organs of digestion
  159. pelvic cavity
    the space formed by the hip bones and contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
  160. inguinal
    relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen
  161. lumb
    lower back
  162. umbilicus
    belly button
  163. peritoneum
    a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
  164. parietal peritoneum
    the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
  165. mesentery
    a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
  166. visceral peritoneum
    the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
  167. retro-
  168. cytology
    the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell
  169. cytologist
    a specialist in the study and analysis of cells
  170. cell membrane
    the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment
  171. cytoplasm
    the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
  172. nucleus
    which is surrounded by the nuclear membrane, is a structure within the cell
  173. stem cells
    unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell divison
  174. gene
    a fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
  175. genetics
    the study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the role of genes
  176. genome
    complete set of genetic information of an organism
  177. chromosomes
    genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell
  178. genetic mutation
    a change of the sequence of a DNA molecule
  179. genetic disorder
    a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
  180. cycstic fibrosis
    a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems
  181. Down syndrome
    a genetic variation that is associated with a characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
  182. Hemophilia
    a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing
  183. Huntington's disease
    • a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. 
    • Causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife
  184. Muscular dystrophy
    a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
  185. Phenylketonuria
    a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing
  186. Tay-Sachs disease
    a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance buildup in tissues and nerve cells in the brain
  187. tissue
    a group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions
  188. epithelial tissues
    form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
  189. Epithelium
    the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer
  190. Endothelium
    the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
  191. Connective tissues
    support and connect organs and other body tissues
  192. Dense connective tissues
    such as a bone and cartilage, form the joints and framework of the body
  193. Adipose tissue
    provides protective padding, insulation, and support
  194. Loose connective tissue
    surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels
  195. Liquid connective tissues
    blood and lymph, transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body
  196. Aplasia
    the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
  197. hypoplasia
    is the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
  198. Anaplasia
    a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
  199. Dysplasia
    the abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
  200. Hyperplasia
    the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells n the tissues
  201. Hypertrophy
    a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues
  202. gland
    a group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions
  203. exocrine glands
    secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body
  204. endocrine glands
    • which produce hormones, do not have ducts
    • hormones are secreted into the bloodstream
  205. Adenitis
    the inflammation of a gland
  206. Adenocarcinoma
    a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
  207. -oma
  208. carcin
  209. adenoma
    a benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue
  210. Adenomalacia
    the abnormal softening of a gland
  211. adenosis
    any disease or condition of a gland
  212. adenosclerosis
    the abnormal hardening of a gland
  213. adenectomy
    the surgical removal of a gland
  214. pathology
    the study of a disease
  215. pathologist
    specializes in the laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis
  216. etiology
    the study of the causes of diseases
  217. pathogen
    disease producing microorganism such as a virus
  218. communicable disease
    • contagious disease
    • any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects
  219. Indirect contact transmission
    refers to situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated substance
  220. Bloodborne transmission
    the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood
  221. Airborne Transmission
    occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze
  222. Food-borne and waterborne transmission
    caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly trated to remove contamination or kill any pathogens present
  223. Vector-borne transmission
    the spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector
  224. epidemiologist
    a specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population or group
  225. endemic
    refers to the ongoing presence of a diesease within a population, group, or area
  226. epidemic
    a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area
  227. Pandemic
    an outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
  228. functional disorder
    produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
  229. iatrogenic illness
    an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
  230. idiopathic disorder
    an illness without known cause
  231. infectious disease
    an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses
  232. nosocomial infection
    a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
  233. organic disorder
    produces symptoms caused by detectablephysical changes in the body
  234. developmental disorder
    • birth defect
    • can result in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe
  235. anomaly
    deviation from what is regarded as normal
  236. atresia
    describes the congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
  237. geriatrics
    medical problems and care of older people is known as geriatrics
  238. general practitioner
    • family practice physician 
    • provides ongoing care for patients of all ages
  239. internist
    a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related blood systems
  240. pediatrician
    a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of infants and children
  241. geriatrician
    a physician who specializes in the care of older people
  242. hospitalist
    focuses on general medical care of hospitalized patients
  243. A & P
    Anatomy and Physiology
  244. CD
    Communicable disease
  245. CH
  246. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  247. epid
  248. GP
    general practitioner
  249. HD
    Huntington's disease
  250. LLQ
    left lower quadrant
  251. LUQ
    left upper quadrant
  252. PKU
  253. RLQ
    right lower quadrant
  254. RUQ
    right upper quadrant
  255. ankyl/o
    crooked, bent, stiff
  256. chondr/i or chondr/o
  257. cost/o
  258. -desis
    to bind or tie together
  259. kyph/o
    bent, hump
  260. lord/o
    curve, swayback, bent
  261. -lysis
    loosening or setting free
  262. oss/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o
  263. scol/i
    curved bent
  264. spondyl/o
    vertebrae, vertebral column, backbone
  265. synovi/o or synov/o
    synovial membrane
  266. -um
    singular noun ending
  267. periosteum
    the tough fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
  268. compact bone
    the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones
  269. Spongy bone
    • lighter and not as strong as compact bone
    • commonly found on the ends and inner portions of long bones
  270. medullary cavity
    the central cavity located in the shaft of long bones where it is surrounded by compact bone
  271. endosteum
    the tisue that lines the medullary cavity
  272. red bone marrow
    • located in the spongy bone
    • manufactures RBC, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
  273. Hemopoietic
    pertaining to the formation of blood cells
  274. -poietic
  275. cartilage
    smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a schock absorber between bones
  276. Articular cartilage
    covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints
  277. meniscus
    the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints (such as the knee)
  278. diaphysis
    the shaft of a long bone
  279. epiphysis
    the wider ends of long bones 
  280. foramen
    an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
  281. process
    a normal projection on the surface of a bone that most commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle or tendon
  282. Joints
    • articulations
    • the place of union between two or more bones
  283. Fibrous joints
    consists of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together
  284. fontanelles
    • soft spots
    • present on the skull of a newborn
  285. Cartilaginous joints
    allow slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
  286. synovial joint
    created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
  287. synovial capsule
    the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
  288. synovial membrane
    lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
  289. synovial fluid
    • flows within the synovial cavity
    • acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible
  290. Ligaments
    are bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone or by joining a bone to cartilage
  291. bursa
    a fibrous sace that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction
  292. axial skeleton
    protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems
  293. appendicular skeleton
    makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
  294. external auditory meatus
    the opening of the external auditory canal
  295. auditory ossicles
    the three tiny bones located in the middle ear
  296. manubrium
    the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
  297. body of the sternum
    the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum
  298. xiphoid process
    the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
  299. lamina
    the posterior portion of the spinal column
  300. Types of vertebrae
    • Cervical (C1 - C7)
    • Thoracic (T1 - T12)
    • Lumbar (L1 - L5)
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx
  301. acetabulum
    hip joint
  302. popliteal
    posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
  303. cruciate ligaments
    make it possible to move the knee
  304. malleolus
    a rounded bony projection on the tibia and fibula to the sides of the ankle joint
  305. talus
    the ankle bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula
  306. calcaneus
    known as the heel bone
  307. chiropractor
    doctor that specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from the misalignment of the spine
  308. orthopedic surgeon
    a physician that specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
  309. osteopath
    uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
  310. podiatrist
    specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
  311. rheumatologist
    a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders of the foot
  312. Ankylosis
    the loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure
  313. Arthrosclerosis
    stiffness of the joints
  314. bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  315. chondromalacia
    abnormal softening of cartilage
  316. chondroma
    slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells
  317. costochondritis
    an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
  318. Hallux valgus
    • bunion
    • an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
  319. Hemarthrosis
    Blood within a joint
  320. Polymyalgia rheumatica
    a geriatric inflammatory disorder of the muscles and joints characterized by pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, and hips and thighs
  321. Sprain
    the wrenching or tearing of a ligament
  322. Synovitis
    inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint
  323. Dislocation
    the total displacement of a bone from its joint
  324. Subluxation
    ther partial displacement of a bone from its joint
  325. Arthritis
    inflammatory condition of one or more joints
  326. Osteoarthritis
    • wear-and-tear arthritis
    • characterized by the wearing away of the articular cartilage
  327. osteophytes
    bone spurs
  328. Spondylosis
    Spinal osteoarthritis
  329. Gouty arthritis
    deposits of uric acid in the joints
  330. Rheumatoid arthritis
    a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked
  331. Ankylosing Spondylitis
    a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
  332. herniated disk
    breaking apart of an intevertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
  333. Lumbago
    low back pain
  334. Spondylolisthesis
    the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebra or sacrum
  335. Spina bifida
    a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
  336. Kyphosis
    an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine
  337. Lordosis
    an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the the lumbar spine
  338. Scoliosis
    an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
  339. Craniostenosis
    a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of cranial sutures
  340. Fibrous dysplasia
    a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue
  341. Ostealgia
    pain in a bone
  342. osteitis
    an inflammation of bone
  343. Osteomalacia
    abnormal softening of bones in adults
  344. Osteomyelitis
    inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
  345. Osteonecrosis
    the death of bone tissue due to insufficient blood supply
  346. Paget's disease
    • bone disease of unknown cause
    • characterized by the breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
  347. Periostitis
    • inflammation of the periosteum
    • shin splints
  348. Short stature
    Condition resulting from the failure of bones of the linbs to grow to an appropriate length compared to the size of the head and trunk
  349. talipes
    also known as club foot
  350. Primary bone cancer
    malignant tumor that originates in the bone
  351. Secondary bone cancer
    tumors that have metastasized (spread) to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs
  352. myeloma
    a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow
  353. osteochondroma
    a benign bony projection covered with cartilage
  354. Osteoporosis
    a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity 
  355. Osteopenia
    thinner-than-average bone density
  356. Compression fracture
    occurs when the bone is pressed together on itself
  357. Colle's fracture
    • fractured wrist
    • occurs when someone tries to stop a fall by landing on his/her hands
  358. Osteoporotic hip fracture
    usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall
  359. fracture
    broken bone
  360. closed fracture
    • simple fracture
    • no open wound in the skin
  361. open fracture
    • compound fracture
    • open wound in the skin
  362. comminuted fracture
    the bone is splintered or crushed
  363. greenstick fracture
    the bone is bent and only partially broken
  364. oblique fracture
    occurs at an angle across the bone
  365. pathologic fracture 
    occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain
  366. spiral fracture
    a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart
  367. stress fracture
    • an overuse injury
    • develops a small crack in the bone
  368. transverse fracture
    occurs straight across the bone
  369. fat embolus
    form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
  370. Crepitation
    the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together
  371. callus
    a bulging deposit around the area of the break after it heals
  372. radiograph
  373. arthroscopy
    the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
  374. bone marrow biopsy
    a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a blood test
  375. magnetic resonace imaging
    • MRI
    • used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
  376. Bone density testing
    used to determine losses or changes in bone density
  377. ultrasonic bone density testing
    a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass
  378. Dual x-ray absorptiometry
    a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
  379. allogenic bone marrow transplant
    healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor
  380. autologous bone marrow transplant
    the patient receives their own bone marrow cells, which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and stored before the remaining bone marrow in the patients body is destoryed
  381. orthtic
    a mechanical appliance that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
  382. prosthesis
    a substititute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated
  383. Arhtrodesis
    the surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder
  384. Arthrolysis
    the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
  385. arthroscopic surgery
    a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
  386. Chondroplasty
    the surgical repair of damaged cartilage
  387. Synovectomy
    the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
  388. viscosupplementations
    injections used to add a preparation of hyaluronic acid and related compounds to a joint, easing friction and making movement easier
  389. arhtroplasty
    surgical replacement of an artificial joint
  390. total knee replacement
    means that all of the parts of the knee were replaced
  391. partial knee replacement
    a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced
  392. Hip resurfacing
    a metal cap is placed on the head of the femur
  393. Revision surgery
    the replacement of a worn or failed implant
  394. percutaneous diskectomy
    suction or vaporization of the ruptured disck
  395. Percutaneous vertebroplasty
    boone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal column
  396. laminectomy
    the surgical removal of a lamina or posterior portion of a vertebra
  397. Spinal fusion
    a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together two or more vertebrae
  398. Osteoclasis
    the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
  399. Osteorrhaphy
    the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones
  400. Osteotomy
    the surgical cutting of a bone
  401. periosteotomy
    an incision through the periosteum of the bone
  402. closed reduction
    attempted realignment of a bone by manual force then immobilization
  403. traction
    pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal allignment
  404. BDT
    Bone density testing
  405. CR
    closed reduction
  406. Fx
  407. OA
  408. OP
  409. PKR
    Partial knee replacement
  410. PMR
    polymyalgia rheumatica
  411. RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
  412. THA
    total hip arthroplasty
  413. TKA
    total knee arthroplasty