Anatomy U4 Respiratory

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Andrewevenstar
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187784
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Anatomy U4 Respiratory
Updated:
2012-12-07 12:40:51
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Anatomy Respiratory
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Anatomy U4 Respiratory
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  1. Nasal Cavity
    nasal conchae, mucus membranes; intake, purification, hydration and thermoregulation of air entering the respiratory system through the nasopharynx and pharynx
  2. Larynx (respiratory tree)
    • vocal folds for creation of sound; glottis provides for entrance into respiratory system from pharynx;
    • epiglottis closes glottis during swallowing to prevent movement of food and liquid intothe respiratory system;
    • cricoid and thyroid cartilages (and others) provide structure for larynx
  3. Trachea (respiratory tree)
    • tracheal cartilages provide structure to maintain patency (open);
    • psudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells provides for purification of air and movement of debris up to pharynx
  4. Bronchi (respiratory tree)
    • Provide for movement of air into lungs (toward alveoli);
    • Surrounded by C-shaped cartilages or (in secondary and tertiary bronchii, cartilage plates) which provide support to prevent collapse;
    • ten tertiary bronchii in right lung and about nine in left lung; open into bronchioles
  5. Bronchioles (respiratory tree)
    • lack cartilagenous support; dominated by smooth muscle capable of bronchodilation (sympathetic activation) or bronchoconstriction (parasympathetic activation);
    • terminal bronchioles lead to respiratory bronchioles which lead to alveolar ducts which lead to alveoli
  6. Alveoli
    Air sacs of the lungs
  7. Alveolar Type I cells
    Squamous cells forming the wall of alveoli
  8. Alveolar Type II cells
    surfactant cells produce surfactant (phospholipids) which reduce surface tension within alveoli and prevent collapse of the alveoli
  9. Dust cells
    Fixed macrophages within the alveoli which phagocytize debris, bacteria, etc
  10. Pulmonary arteries (pulomonary blood supply)
    Supply deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to blood vessels, ultimately capillaries surrounding alveoli
  11. Pulmonary Veins (Pulmonary Blood Supply)
    return oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium of the heart
  12. Alveolar capillaries (pulmonary blood supply)
    site of external respiration
  13. External respiration
    • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli of lung and blood within capillaries
    • Oxygen from alveoli enter blood cells and attach to emoglobin forming oxyhemoglobin; hydrogen ions released from the hemoglobin and reacts with bicarbonate to form carbonic acid; carbonic anhydrase catalyzes breakdown of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide diffuses from blood cell toward alveolar space where it is exhaled
  14. Internal respiration
    • exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between bloodstream and tissues of the body;
    • carbon dioxide from cells enters red blood corpuscles and reacts with water to form carbonic acid; lower pH stimulates release of oxygen from hemoglobin which diffuses into cells (Bohr Effect)

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