Anatomy U4 Reproductive

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Anatomy U4 Reproductive
2012-12-07 12:58:39
Anatomy U4 Reproductive

Anatomy U4 Reproductive
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  1. Spermatogenesis
    • production of sperm cells within the seminiferous tubules of the testicles;
    • spermatogonia (diploid cells) mitotically divide to replace themselves, subsequently meiotically divide to produce primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte (haploid cells),spermatids, and then spermatozoa
  2. Sertoli cells
    within seminiferous tubules stimulate spermatogenesis in response to FSH and testosterone hormones
  3. Interstitial cells (of Leydig)
    • release testosterone in response to interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH or LH) from the anterior pituitary gland
    • Testosterone stimulates Sertoli cells which promote spermatogenesis
  4. Epididymus
    stores spermatozoa and provides location for maturation of spermatozoa
  5. Vas deferens (ductus deferens)
    propel spermatozoa to ejaculatory duct during orgasm by way of waves of muscular contractions
  6. Seminal vessicles & prostate glands
    • provide semen which mixes with spermatozoa during orgasm;
    • seminal vessicle fluid (60% of total ejaculate) contains fructose, prostaglandins, and clotting proteins) whereas prostate fluid (30% of total ejaculate) contains antibiotic seminalplasmin and acidic fluid
  7. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands)
    secrete sticky, alkaline fluid to neutralize urinary acids and lubricate the penis for intercourse
  8. Corpora cavernosa & corpus spongiosum
    • erectile tissues within the penis which engourge with blood as a result of vasodilation of arteries and pressure compression of veins to produce an erection for intercourse;
    • corpus spongiosum surrounds and protects urethra and swells glans of the penis during erection
  9. Scrotum
    • allows for development of sperm cells in testicles at a temperature below that of the body;
    • dartos muscle and cremaster muscle provide mechanism to pull testicles into inguinal canal to increase temperature of testicles when external temperatures are cold and provide for protective reflex movement of testicles into inguinal canals
  10. Spermatozoa:
    flagella (movement of sperm cells, acrosome (contains enzymes necessary for pre-fertilization process), spiral mitochondria (ATP production)
  11. Oogenesis (female)
    • occurs in ovary; production of oocytes and ultimately ova;
    • oogonia (diploid) meiotically divide to produce primary oocytes and then secondary oocytes (which are ovulated) and if fertilized the secondary oocyte becomes an ovum;
    • fertilized ovum becomes a zygote after pronuclei emerge into one nucleus
  12. Primordial follicles (female)
    • stimulated by FSH from anterior pituitary gland and become primary oocytes; primary oocytes become secondary oocytes and are in a secondary follicle;
    • secondary follicle becomes an antral follicle and finally a mature (Graffian) follicle; Graffian follicle ovulates and follicular cells become the corpus luteum under the influence of LH hormone;
    • corpus luteum secretes estrogens and progesterone but untimately"dies" to become an atretic follicle
  13. Fallopian tube (woman)
    carries secondary oocyte and corona radiata toward the uterus (ciliated for this purpose) and provides location for fertilization
  14. Uterus (woman)
    consists of epimetrium, myometrium and endometrium; provides location for gestation of embryo and fetus; cervix is the neck of the uterus
  15. Ligaments (woman)
    Structures held in position by suspensory ligament, ovarian ligament, round ligament, broad ligament, mesovarium and other ligaments
  16. Vagina
    Vagina receives penis during sexual intercourse and provides a birth canal for childbirth
  17. Bartholin's glands
    lubricate the vagina for intercourse
  18. Clitoris
    the homolog to the male penis; contains erectile tissue and endowed with sensory neurons for sexual stimulation