Card Set Information
the division of sovereignty between national and state government
Interest group activities intended to influence directly the decisiopns that public officials make.
Proportional representation voting system
Electoral system in which parties receive a share of seats in parliament that is proportional to the popular viote they receive.
electoral system in which the country is divided into geographic districts, and the candidates who win the most votes wintin their districts get elected.
Political action Committee (PAC)
Specialized organination for raising and spending campaign funds; oftern affiliated with an interest group or association.
Money contributed by interest groups, labor unions and individual donors that not subject to federal regulation.
Separation of powers
A system of government in which different institutions exercise the different components of governmental power.
Prior Restraint Doctrine
Legal doctrine that gives individual the right to publish without prior restraint-that is, without first submitting material to a government censor.
In court rulings, reliance on consitency with precedents.
Previos court decision or ruling applicable to a particular case.
Civil Service Protection
A system in which government employees are chosen according to their educational qualification, perfomance on examination, and work experience.
Due process clause
Clause found in the fiftth and fourtheenth Amendment to the Constitution; forbids deprivation of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Equal Protection Clause
Fourteenth Amendment clause specifying that no state can deny any of its people equal protection under the law.
Constitutional provision that gives congress power to regulate commerce "among the states"
Doctrine that says court should, if at all possible, rule narrowly and avoid overturning a prior court decision.
Hirarchical organization of officials with responsibility for specific tasks.
A presidential directive that has the force of law, althought it is nor enacted by Congress.
The right of the president to deny Congress information it requests on the grounds that the activities of the executive branch must be kept cofidential.