ALES 204

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Author:
KK37
ID:
187819
Filename:
ALES 204
Updated:
2012-12-08 01:56:58
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Communication
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Communication Theory and Practice
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  1. 7 essentials of communication
    • people
    • message
    • channels
    • noise
    • context
    • feedback
    • effect
  2. Definition of communication
    Deliberate or accidental transfer of meaning
  3. 5 myths of communication
    • everyone is an expert
    • communication solves everything
    • communication can break down
    • communication is inherently good
    • more communication is better
  4. Why is communication important?
    • instrumental needs
    • physical needs
    • relational needs
    • identity needs
  5. What is culture?
    A system of knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and artifacts that are aquaired, shared, and used by members during daily living
  6. What is co-culture?
    Groups of people who differ in some ethnic or sociological way from their parents culture
  7. What strategies do co cultures use to interact?
    • Assimilation
    • accommodation
    • separation
  8. 5 dimensions of culture
    • Individualism vs collectivism
    • high vs low context
    • high vs low power
    • monochromic vs polychromic
    • masculine vs feminine
  9. 5 parts of an e-mail
    • subject line
    • opening
    • focus
    • action
    • closing
  10. what is the inverted pyramid?
    most newsworthy info (who what when, ect)-> important details-> general info
  11. What is perception?
    Process by which we make sense out of experience
  12. 5 stages of perception
    • selecting
    • organizing
    • interpreting
    • retrieving
    • responding
  13. 4 types of selective perception
    • Selective perception= means of interpreting experience in a way that confoms
    • Selecctive exposure= exposing only to infor that reaffirms
    • Selective attention= focusing only on certain cues
    • Selective retention= remembering only reinforcing ideas
  14. Self Concept
    Self image+Self esteem
  15. ways we percieve others
    • first impressions
    • stereotypes and prejudice
    • self serving biases
    • allness
    • facts and inference
    • empathy
  16. audience profiles
    a written summary of everything that you havee discovered about your audience
  17. what is language
    A unified system of symbols that permits the sharing of meaning
  18. bypassing
    miscommunication that occurs when individuals think they understand each other but actually don't
  19. denotative meaning
    dictionary meaning of a word
  20. connotative meaning
    subjective meaning of a word
  21. influences on meaning
    • time
    • place
    • experience (think jargon)
  22. sapir-whorf hypothesis
    belief that labels we use help shape our thinking, worldview, and behaviour
  23. 9 channels of non-verbal communication
    • kinesics (facial, posture, gestures)
    • voice (paralanguage= pitch, volume, rate, silence, nonfluencies)
    • proxemics (space= Intimate, personal, and social distances)
    • appearance (height, weight, race)
    • colours (affect us emotionally and physiologically)
    • clothing and artifacts (creates image of person and effects behaviour)
    • time (length we will wait is determined by importance)
    • touch
    • smell (associated with attraction and aids in memory)
  24. 7 universal facial expressions
    • Disgust
    • Happy
    • Contempt
    • Sad
    • Anger
    • Fear
    • Surprise
  25. Types of touch
    • affectionate
    • caregiving
    • power and control
    • aggressive
    • ritualistic
  26. interpersonal relationship
    meaning ful connection, such as friendship, between two people
  27. Interpersonal Needs
    • inclusion - social contact
    • control - have some influence in relationships
    • affection - emotional closeness
  28. 5 steps in conversation
    • opening
    • provide feed foreward (phatic communication)
    • elaborate
    • reflect
    • close
  29. breadth and depth
    • breadth= number of topics discussed
    • depth= how central the topics discussed are to your slef-concept
  30. 10 stages of a relationship
    • initiating
    • experimenting (probing unknown)
    • intensifying (good friends)
    • integrating (couple)
    • bonding (formal commitment)
    • differentiating (regaining identity)
    • circumscribing (decrease in communication)
    • stagnating (communication standstill)
    • avoiding (intentional avoidance)
    • terminating
  31. how do you reduce uncertainty in a relationship?
    • passsive strategy (observe from afar)
    • interactive strategy (communicate directly)
    • active strategy (third party)
  32. Types of relationships
    • acuaintanceships
    • friendships
    • romantic
    • family
    • work
  33. 6 stages of friendship
    • role-limited interaction
    • friendly relations
    • moving foreward friendship
    • nascent friendship
    • stabilized frinedship
    • waning friendship
  34. 4 signs of a failing relationship
    • criticism
    • contempt
    • defensiveness
    • stonewalling
  35. ways to deal with emotion
    • emotional intelligence (control of impulses and ability to regulate)
    • censoring your feelings (emotional isolationists)
    • display rules (when and when not to show emotions)
    • gender and emotion
    • cultural effects
    • personal values
  36. the "who's" of conflict
    • self-conflict (decisions)
    • intrapersonal conflict (internal conflict)
    • interpersonal conflict
  37. intensities of conflict
    • low intensity- working to discover benefical solution
    • medium intensity- winning is ultimate goal
    • high intensity - destruction of others is ultimate goal
  38. Types of conflict
    • pseudoconflict = mistakenly beleive that two or more goals can not be achieved simultaneously
    • content conflict = disagreement of matters of fact
    • value conflict = disagreement over different views on an issue
    • ego conflict = winning is tied to a persons self-worth
  39. assertiveness
    • nonassertiveness = hesitation to desplay one's feelings and thoughts
    • aggressiveness = expressing thoughts and feeling at others expense
    • assertive = expressing thoughts and feelings with respect
  40. DESC script
    Behaviours that promote self-assertion

    • Describe the behaviour
    • Express how you feel
    • Specify behaviours you would like
    • List the consequences
  41. Rhetoric
    How to use language effectively to communicate a message
  42. infomative communication
    effort to deeepen understanding and awareness
  43. 4 components of effective instructions
    • desired state = goal to accomplish
    • prerequisite state = what must be known
    • interim state = steps to take
    • unwanted states = things to avoid
  44. steps for an effective explanation
    • define concepts by their essential meaning
    • give an array of varied examples
    • offer "non-examples" or closely related but distinct concepts
    • encourage practicing
  45. how to increase readability
    • reduce sentence length
    • avoid long words
    • choose anglo-saxon rooted words (canine vs dog)
    • plain english 
  46. 4 features of plain language
    • common everyday words
    • refering to reader as "you" and writer as "we"
    • using active voice
    • short sentences
  47. CRAP principles of design
    • Contrast
    • Repetition
    • Alignment
    • Proximity
  48. How to make things stick?
    SUCCES

    • Simple
    • Unexpected
    • Credible
    • Concrete
    • Emotion
    • Stories
  49. Meetings
    • Group of people thinking pourposefully together to:
    • Echange/evaluate info
    • solve problems
    • resolve conflicts
    • inspire
  50. Chair
    • communicate meetings pourpose
    • direct converstion and timing
    • provides sense of security
    • sets agenda
  51. Administrator
    • Assists chair
    • writes/distibutes minutes
    • logistics
  52. meeting participants
    • Drama Queen - diverts attention
    • grouch - good to keep involved
    • one-track mind - "but lets remember"
    • Peter power point - limit # of words
  53. groups
    Collection of indivudals who occupy roles and cooperate to accomplish a goal

    • Characteristics
    • membership/size
    • goals
    • structure (positions/roles)
    • patterns of communication
    • group norms (informal rules)
    • climate (emotional atmosphere)
  54. Dimensions of teams
    • Identification (functional group vs team)
    • Interdependance
    • power differentiation
    • social distance
    • conflict management (forcing,accommodating, avoiding vs confronting and collaborating
    • negotiation process (win-lose vs win-win)
  55. stages of group development
    • forming (exploration, building trust and organization)
    • storming (team building, bid for power)
    • norming (how each individual can help group)
    • performing (how to achieve goal in best way)
    • adjourning 
  56. when to use a group
    • Complex problems
    • requires divided labour (one person cannot solve)
    • needs diverse views
    • group is available
  57. roles in groups
    • task-oriented roles (help group achieve goals)
    • mainenance-oriented roles (ensure smooth running of group)
    • self-serving roles (impede function of group)
  58. meathods of decision making
    • majority vote
    • averaging
    • decision by consensus
    • expert decides
    • nominal group technique (secret voting and limited discussion)
    • delphi method (group of experts, no meetings but multiple revisons of ideas until conclusion)
    • quality circle (involving employees through taking all ideas)
  59. types of leaders
    • trait (always leader)
    • functional (leadership is a set of behaviours not a person)
    • situational (leadership in certain situations)
    • transformational (transforms others around)
  60. types of leaders
    • autocratic (directive leader)
    • Laissez-faire (non-directive)
    • democratic (reasonable compromises)
  61. Public speaking anxiety
    • fear of failure
    • fear of unknown
    • fear of judgement
    • fear of consequences
  62. public speaking preparation
    • topic selection/audience analysis
    • speech development (organizations and support)
    • presentation practice
    • post presentation alalysis
  63. Maslows hierarchy of needs 
    • 1  physiological
    • 2  security (financial, ect)
    • 3  belongingness
    • 4  esteem
    • 5  self actualization
  64. Monroe's 5 things to persuade
    • attention
    • need
    • satisfaction
    • visualization
    • action
  65. parts of an argument
    • claim = debatable assertion
    • reasons = facts of evidence
    • warrant = explanation between claim and reasons
    • backing = support that answers other concerns
    • qualifier = strength of connection
    • rebuttal = potential counter arguments
  66. Fallacies
    • Ad Hominem - name calling
    • Red Herring - distracting with irrelevant info
    • False Division - forcing 1-2 opinions when multiple exist
    • Hasty Generalization - jumping to flawed conclusions
    • Slippery Slope - assuming one thing leads to another
    • appeal to tradition
    • post hoc - assuming one thing causes another
    • bandwagon appeal
    • appeal to authority - fake authority
  67. How to write a communications strategy
    • Objectives: should be the overall goals that will be achieved. Ex. enable leadership, cooperation. or manage information/productivity
    • Audiences: Should identify who you need to communicate to achieve your oganisational objectives and any info about those audiences
    • Messages: 1-3 short soundbites that are key to the organizational messages
    • Tools and Activities: What channel and medium will be used? basically how will you communcate the messages to the audience
    • Resources and timescales: what resources are going to be used and what are the timelines (be realistic)
    • Evaluation and Amendment: How will you determine if the communication strategy was effective? audit internal and external audiences. use questions with appropriate prompts:
    • What do you read/see/hear?
    • What works/doesn’t work?
    • What do you want to see more of?
    • hat information do you need that you are not currently supplied with?
    • How often do you want us to communicate with you? 

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