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4 types of Macromolecules
- 1. Carbohydrates
- 2. Lipids
- 3. Protiens
- 4. Nucleic Acids
Monomer of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides or Simple Sugars
Example of a Carbohydrate
Sugars (glucose), Starch, Glycogen, etc..
Monomer of a Lipid
No real monomer, but made up of C, H, and O atoms
Example of a Lipid
Unsaturated or Saturated Fats, Phosopholipids, Steroids, Cholesterol, etc..
Monomer of a Protein
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
4 Levels of Structure of a Protein
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary.
Monomer of a Nucleic Acid
Example of a Nucleic Acid
DNA and RNA
Structure of Phospholipids
A phosphate group, glycerol, and 2 fatty acids
Function of Phospholipids
Make up the cell membrane and forms bilayer
Characterisitcs of Prokaryotic Cell
- NO membrane bound organelles
- DNA is in nucleoid region
- Possess a cell wall OUTSIDE of plasma membrane
General characteristics of Eukaryotic Cell
- Membrane bound organelles
- DNA in nucleus
- do not ALWAYS possess a cell wall
Characteristics of Eukaryotic ANIMAL Cell
- Lysosome (for enzymes)
- Centrosomes (organizational)
- Flagella (cell mobility)
Characteristic of Eukaryotic PLANT Cell
- Chloroplasts (photosynthesis)
- Central Vacuole (storage)
- Cell Wall (structure)
- Plasmodesmata (bridge between cells)
Light Microscopy (LM)
Light passes through the cell sample
Electron Microscopy (EM)
- Electrons focused on cell sample
- SEM & TEM
- Scanning Electron Microscopy
- Focus on cell surface
- Transmission Electron Microscopy
- Focuses inside the cell
Breaking cell open to purify organelles
double membrane structure surrounding the nucleus
Nuclear Pore Complexes
Pores in envelope with proteins in it
A long piece of DNA with a lot of proteins
Complexes of rRNA and protein to build protein
2 Types of Ribosomes
- 1. Free Ribosomes
- 2. Bound Ribosomes
A group of organelles related by physical contact
How do molecules move around in a cell?
Small vesicles or sacs of membranes
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Surrounds the nucleus and has two parts: smooth ER and rough ER
Describe function of the smooth ER
There are no ribosomes. Synthesizes lipids, detoxifies drugs, and stores calcium.
Describe the function of the rough ER
It is bounded by protein. It makes protein, acts as a gatekeeper of vesicular transport, makes membrane.
Structure of the Golgi
A group of flattened stacks (called cisternae). Two sides of the golgi: recieving side from the ER called cis and exporting side called trans.
Function of the Golgi
- 1. Modifies protein
- 2. Storage
- 3. Organization
- 4. Makes carbohydrates
Structure of Lysosomes
Sacs of membrane with enzymes in it.
Function of Lysosomes
- To eat a cell (phagocytosis)
- Digestion of old organelles (autophagy)
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts came from the engulfment of prokaryotes because they have similar structure.
Structure of Mitochondrion
A double membrane. Inner membrane is a lipid bilayer that extensively folds. Purpose of folds gives more surface area for enzymes.
Inside inner membrane where free ribosomes are.
Intermediate Space in Mitochondria
Between inner membrane and outer membrane.
Function of Mitochondria
Cellular Respiration occurs and production of ATP.
Structure of Chloroplasts
Double membrane structure that holds thykaloids, granum, and stroma.
Function of Chloroplasts
Gives green pigment and where photosynthesis occurs.
Structure of a Peroxisome
Single membrane structure.
Function of a Peroxisome
- Detoxify harmful compounds
- Break down fatty acids
Function of the Cytoskeleton
- To support organelles and shape of cell.
- Cell motility
3 Types of Cytoskeleton Fibers
- 1. Microtubules
- 2. Microfilaments
- 3. Intermediate Filaments
Structure of Microtubules
- Tubulin dimers that form a hollow tube.
Function of Microtubules
Cell motility, support cell shape and organelles movements (acts as tracks they move along).
Structure of Microfilaments
- Actins that make up 2 intertwined strands.
Function of Microfilaments
Maintain or changes the shape of cell.
Structure of Intermediate Filaments
- Size inbetween Microtubules and Microfilaments
- Fibers of protein coiled into thicker cables.
Function of Intermediate Filaments
Maintains cell shape because very stable.
Structure of Cell Membrane
Phospholipids that make a bilayer. Also contains proteins, carbohydrates, or cholesterol.
Function of Cell Membrane
Control and regulate the passage of materials (permeability), foundation for cytoskeleton, and recieve or transmit information.
Fluid Mosaic Model
Phospholipids that make up a bilayer with proteins randomly embedded in it.
Definition of Membrane Fluidity
Membrane bilayer could move around = Dynamic
Phosopholipids can move two ways:
Contains double bonds between carbons. Causes "kinks" and makes less compact = more fluidity.
Has no double bonds which makes more compact molecules = less fluidity.
Definition of Membrane Permeability
Regulation/Trafficing of molecules entering or exiting the cell.
Molecules easy to pass through membrane..
Hydrophobic, small, nonpolar molecules.
Molecules difficult to pass through membrane..
Hydrophilic, long, polar molecules.
Random movement of molecules trying to reach equilibrium. Molecules will move from high to low concentration ("down the gradient").
Diffusion across membrane without the use of energy. Means that molecules can move easily across the membrane.
- Diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane. Water molecules will move from low to high concentration of solute.
Definition of Tonicity
Ability of a solution to cause a cell to lose or gain water.
- There is a low concentration of water molecules in the cell.
- There is the same concentration of water molecules in the cell as outside the cell.
- There is a high concentration of water molecules in the cell.
What happens to a Hypotonic Cell?
- Water will move into the cell and could cause it to burst.
What happens to Isotonic Cells?
- Nothing, there is equal amount of water inside and outside of the cell. Water will equally move in and out.
What happens to Hypertonic Cells?
Water could move out of the cell and it could cause it to shrival up.
- Diffusion that requires proteins to move solute down its concentration gradien without the input of energy.
- Transport that requires proteins and energy (in the form of ATP) to move solute up its concentration gradient.
- Forms a corridor for solutes to pass through.
- Example: Ion channels or aquaporins.
- Protein that alternates between shapes to move solutes.
- Example: Glucose transporter or sodium-potassium pump.
Multidrug Resistance Transporters
Carrier proteins that can actively transport drugs out of cells.
How can Multidrug Resistance Transporters be a problem?
Could be bad for cancer or infectious disease treatments.
Active transport assisted by concentration gradient.
4 Emergent Properties of Water
- 1. Water is cohesive
- 2. Water moderates temperature
- 3. Water expands upon freezing
- 4. Water is versatile
Definition of Hydrophilic
Water loving, ionic or polar molecules that can be dissolved water.
Definiton of Hydrophobic
Afraid of water, non ionic or nonpolar molecules that cannot be dissolved in water.
2 Types of Reactions that require Enzymes:
- 1. Synthesis
- 2. Break down
Describe a Synthesis Reaction
Dehydration: the removal of a water molecule by joining 2 polymers.
Describe a Break Down Reaction
Hydrolysis: breaking apart two polymers by adding a water molecule.