Biology 107 Section 1

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amber.duldulao
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187874
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Biology 107 Section 1
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2012-12-08 01:43:28
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General Biology
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Lecture 1-10
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  1. 4 types of Macromolecules
    • 1. Carbohydrates
    • 2. Lipids
    • 3. Protiens
    • 4. Nucleic Acids
  2. Monomer of Carbohydrates
    Monosaccharides or Simple Sugars
  3. Example of a Carbohydrate
    Sugars (glucose), Starch, Glycogen, etc..
  4. Monomer of a Lipid
    No real monomer, but made up of C, H, and O atoms
  5. Example of a Lipid
    Unsaturated or Saturated Fats, Phosopholipids, Steroids, Cholesterol, etc..
  6. Monomer of a Protein
    Amino Acids and Polypeptides
  7. 4 Levels of Structure of a Protein
    Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary.
  8. Monomer of a Nucleic Acid
    Nucleotides
  9. Example of a Nucleic Acid
    DNA and RNA
  10. Structure of Phospholipids
    A phosphate group, glycerol, and 2 fatty acids
  11. Function of Phospholipids
    Make up the cell membrane and forms bilayer
  12. Characterisitcs of Prokaryotic Cell
    • NO membrane bound organelles
    • DNA is in nucleoid region
    • Possess a cell wall OUTSIDE of plasma membrane
  13. General characteristics of Eukaryotic Cell
    • Membrane bound organelles
    • DNA in nucleus
    • do not ALWAYS possess a cell wall
  14. Characteristics of Eukaryotic ANIMAL Cell
    • Lysosome (for enzymes)
    • Centrosomes (organizational)
    • Flagella (cell mobility)
  15. Characteristic of Eukaryotic PLANT Cell
    • Chloroplasts (photosynthesis)
    • Central Vacuole (storage)
    • Cell Wall (structure)
    • Plasmodesmata (bridge between cells)
  16. Light Microscopy (LM)
    Light passes through the cell sample
  17. Electron Microscopy (EM)
    2 types
    • Electrons focused on cell sample 
    • SEM & TEM
  18. SEM
    • Scanning Electron Microscopy
    • Focus on cell surface
  19. TEM
    • Transmission Electron Microscopy
    • Focuses inside the cell
  20. Cell Fractionation
    Breaking cell open to purify organelles
  21. Nucleus
    Houses the DNA
  22. Nuclear Envelope
    double membrane structure surrounding the nucleus
  23. Nuclear Pore Complexes
    Pores in envelope with proteins in it
  24. Chromosomes
    A long piece of DNA with a lot of proteins
  25. Ribosomes
    Complexes of rRNA and protein to build protein
  26. 2 Types of Ribosomes
    • 1. Free Ribosomes
    • 2. Bound Ribosomes
  27. Endomembrane System
    A group of organelles related by physical contact
  28. How do molecules move around in a cell?
    Small vesicles or sacs of membranes
  29. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    Surrounds the nucleus and has two parts: smooth ER and rough ER
  30. Describe function of the smooth ER
    There are no ribosomes. Synthesizes lipids, detoxifies drugs, and stores calcium.
  31. Describe the function of the rough ER
    It is bounded by protein. It makes protein, acts as a gatekeeper of vesicular transport, makes membrane. 
  32. Structure of the Golgi
    A group of flattened stacks (called cisternae).  Two sides of the golgi: recieving side from the ER called cis and exporting side called trans.
  33. Function of the Golgi
    • 1. Modifies protein
    • 2. Storage
    • 3. Organization
    • 4. Makes carbohydrates
  34. Structure of Lysosomes
    Sacs of membrane with enzymes in it.
  35. Function of Lysosomes
    • To eat a cell (phagocytosis) 
    • Digestion of old organelles (autophagy)
  36. Endosymbiotic Theory
    Mitochondria and Chloroplasts came from the engulfment of prokaryotes because they have similar structure.
  37. Structure of Mitochondrion
    A double membrane.  Inner membrane is a lipid bilayer that extensively folds.  Purpose of folds gives more surface area for enzymes.
  38. Mitchondra Matrix
    Inside inner membrane where free ribosomes are.
  39. Intermediate Space in Mitochondria
    Between inner membrane and outer membrane.
  40. Function of Mitochondria
    Cellular Respiration occurs and production of ATP.
  41. Structure of Chloroplasts
    Double membrane structure that holds thykaloids, granum, and stroma.
  42. Function of Chloroplasts
    Gives green pigment and where photosynthesis occurs.
  43. Structure of a Peroxisome
    Single membrane structure.
  44. Function of a Peroxisome
    • Detoxify harmful compounds
    • Break down fatty acids
  45. Function of the Cytoskeleton
    • To support organelles and shape of cell.
    • Cell motility
  46. 3 Types of Cytoskeleton Fibers
    • 1. Microtubules
    • 2. Microfilaments
    • 3. Intermediate Filaments
  47. Structure of Microtubules
    • Biggest 
    • Tubulin dimers that form a hollow tube.
  48. Function of Microtubules
    Cell motility, support cell shape and organelles movements (acts as tracks they move along).
  49. Structure of Microfilaments
    • Smallest
    • Actins that make up 2 intertwined strands.
  50. Function of Microfilaments
    Maintain or changes the shape of cell.
  51. Structure of Intermediate Filaments
    • Size inbetween Microtubules and Microfilaments
    • Fibers of protein coiled into thicker cables.
  52. Function of Intermediate Filaments
    Maintains cell shape because very stable. 
  53. Structure of Cell Membrane
    Phospholipids that make a bilayer. Also contains proteins, carbohydrates, or cholesterol.
  54. Function of Cell Membrane
    Control and regulate the passage of materials (permeability), foundation for cytoskeleton, and recieve or transmit information.
  55. Fluid Mosaic Model
    Phospholipids that make up a bilayer with proteins randomly embedded in it.
  56. Definition of Membrane Fluidity
    Membrane bilayer could move around = Dynamic
  57. Phosopholipids can move two ways:
    • Side-to-side
    • Flip-flop
  58. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    Contains double bonds between carbons. Causes "kinks" and makes less compact = more fluidity.
  59. Saturated Hydrocarbons
    Has no double bonds which makes more compact molecules = less fluidity.
  60. Definition of Membrane Permeability
    Regulation/Trafficing of molecules entering or exiting the cell.
  61. Molecules easy to pass through membrane..
    Hydrophobic, small, nonpolar molecules.
  62. Molecules difficult to pass through membrane..
    Hydrophilic, long, polar molecules.
  63. Diffusion
    Random movement of molecules trying to reach equilibrium.  Molecules will move from high to low concentration ("down the gradient").
  64. Passive Transport
    Diffusion across membrane without the use of energy. Means that molecules can move easily across the membrane.
  65. Osmosis
    • Diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane. Water molecules will move from low to high concentration of solute.  
  66. Definition of Tonicity
    Ability of a solution to cause a cell to lose or gain water.
  67. Hypotonic Solution
    • There is a low concentration of water molecules in the cell.
  68. Isotonic Solution
    • There is the same concentration of water molecules in the cell as outside the cell.
  69. Hypertonic Solution
    • There is a high concentration of water molecules in the cell.
  70. What happens to a Hypotonic Cell?
    • Water will move into the cell and could cause it to burst.
  71. What happens to Isotonic Cells?
    • Nothing, there is equal amount of water inside and outside of the cell. Water will equally move in and out. 
  72. What happens to Hypertonic Cells?
    Water could move out of the cell and it could cause it to shrival up.

  73. Facilitated Diffusion
    • Diffusion that requires proteins to move solute down its concentration gradien without the input of energy.
  74. Active Transport
    • Transport that requires proteins and energy (in the form of ATP) to move solute up its concentration gradient.
  75. Channel Proteins
    • Forms a corridor for solutes to pass through.
    • Example: Ion channels or aquaporins.
  76. Carrier Proteins
    • Protein that alternates between shapes to move solutes.
    • Example: Glucose transporter or sodium-potassium pump.
  77. Multidrug Resistance Transporters
    Carrier proteins that can actively transport drugs out of cells.
  78. How can Multidrug Resistance Transporters be a problem?
    Could be bad for cancer or infectious disease treatments.
  79. Cotransport
    Active transport assisted by concentration gradient.
  80. 4 Emergent Properties of Water
    • 1. Water is cohesive
    • 2. Water moderates temperature
    • 3. Water expands upon freezing
    • 4. Water is versatile
  81. Definition of Hydrophilic
    Water loving, ionic or polar molecules that can be dissolved water.
  82. Definiton of Hydrophobic
    Afraid of water, non ionic or nonpolar molecules that cannot be dissolved in water.
  83. 2 Types of Reactions that require Enzymes:
    • 1. Synthesis
    • 2. Break down
  84. Describe a Synthesis Reaction
    Dehydration: the removal of a water molecule by joining 2 polymers.
  85. Describe a Break Down Reaction
    Hydrolysis: breaking apart two polymers by adding a water molecule.

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