Western Civilization Final Part 1

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Western Civilization Final Part 1
2012-12-08 02:43:38
History Western Civilization

Exams 1, 2, and 3
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  1. Wentworth
    this close ADVISOR of Charles I designed the royal financial policy of "Thorough" which aimed at permitting the king to operate independent of parliamentary taxes; he was also known as the EARL OF STRAFFORD and was eventually executed by vengeful Long Parliament
  2. Bacon
    this English MAN of letters wrote essays advocating a new scientific method based on induction and empiricism; he believed that science had a practical purpse, namely to provide to provide for humankind's greater happiness. 
  3. Ironsides
    this ELITE MILITARY UNIT of armored cavalry was the precursor of the New Model Army during the English Civil War
  4. William of Orange
    former stadholder or elected ruler of the Netherlands, this man deposed his own father-in-law and became joint monarch of England with his wife after the Glorious Revolution; a college in Virginia is named after him and his wife
  5. Discourse on the Method
    in this BOOK Descartes asserted that "I think, therefore I am"; that is, he was able to deduce the validity of scientific propositions from the realization that his thought-processes assured the reality of his own existence
  6. Buckingham
    born George Villiers, this ROYAL FAVORITE and ADVISOR to James I became very unpopular for his corupt control of royal patronage and his erratic role in English foreign policy and war; reputedly the king's homosexual lover, he ultimately was mudered by a personal enemy
  7. Congregationalists
    English Protestant Puritans who held that each individual church should be self-governing and autonomous, not controlled by bishops or presbyters
  8. Solemn League and Covenant
    a sworn defensive ALLIANCE directed against anyone who would disturb the decentralized Calvinist/Presbyterian constitution of the Kirk of Scotland
  9. Brahe
    this Danish SCIENTIST mixed together portions of both the geocentric and heliocentric models of the cosmos; he also developed tables of astronimic observations
  10. Toleration Act
    this English parliamentary ENACTMENT of 1689 permitted Protestant Dissenters to hold public religious worship, but still denied such rights to Catholics and anti-Trinitarian Christians
  11. Charles II
    son of one English king, older brother to another; this secretly pro-Catholic MONARCH was restored to the throne in 1660, unsuccessfully tried to grant religious toleration to Catholics and Dissenters, and was the recipient of a secret allowance from Louis XIV
  12. Petition of Right
    the DOCUMENT promulgated by the English parliament in 1628 which outlawed Charles I's policy of exorting forced loans, reaffirmed parliamentary control over taxation, asserted the liberty of all citizens from imprisonment save on specific charges and according to traditional legal procedures
  13. Boyle
    this SCIENTIST's law had nothing to do with courts, but rather with the volume of gases
  14. Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems
    in this BOOK Galileo defended the heliocentric model of the cosmos in a manner that insulted Pope Urban VIII and was arguably disobedient to the Roman Inquisition; the consequences were a humiliating public recantation and subsequent house arrest
  15. Swammerdam
    through use of the microscope this DUTCH BIOLOGIEST was the first to observe and describe red blood cells and to make important discoveries in insectology
  16. Test Act
    in effect, this English parliamentary ENACTMENT of 1673 prohibited public service by Catholics and Dissenters as crown officials or military commanders; a target of this LEGISLATION was the king's own brother, who then held the rank of lord high admiral of England
  17. Copernicus
    the Polish-German SCIENTIST who first refuted the geocentric model of the cosmos and posited instead a heliocentric model
  18. Protectorate
    this military dictatorial REGIME or SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT followed a successful coup against the English republic, but its ultimate failure ushered in the restoration of the monarcy
  19. Kepler
    German SCIENTIST who defended the heliocentric model for the cosmos by utilizing Brahe's tables of astronomic observations; he also observed that planetary orbits were ellipses, not perfect circles
  20. Rump
    WHAT was remaining after Colonel Pride purged Parliament
  21. Ptolemy
    this ASTRONOMER from Alexandria (Egypt) proposed the geocentric model of the cosmos in the second century AD
  22. Ship money
    this TAX was viewed as an abuse when assessed from inland landholders by an English king, Hampden unsuccessfully litigated against it
  23. James II
    this royal SON of Charles I was duke of York before his accession to the throne; an adult convert to Catholicism; he fell victim to the Glorious Revolution after his wife gave birth to a boy in 1688; deposed by his daughter and son-in-law, he failed at a comeback and died in exile
  24. Charles I
    a SON of James I, a proponent of royal prerogative and "High Church" ecclesiology and ritual, this English KING literally lost his head after losing the English Civil War
  25. Benevolences
    these "GIFTS" extorted James I from his English subjects were very unpopular and eventually declared illegal in St. John's Case
  26. Newton
    this English SCIENTIST favored empiricism and induction, developed calculus, formulated fundamental laws of motion and of gravity, and authored Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles)
  27. Deduction
    a FORM OF REASONING from a single general premise to many individual specific conclusions; favored by Descartes
  28. Monads
    Leibniz argued that the universe is composed of these individual, eternal, un-interacting elemental and substantial UNITS of all-being
  29. James I
    this KING OF ENGLAND - the first Scottish monarch to serve also in this capacity - ordered the preparation by theological experts of an authorized English-language version of the Bible
  30. Declarations of Indulgence
    two English kinds tried to utilize THESE to benefit the religious liberties of their subjects, both Catholics and Dissenters, who were not members of the established Church of England
  31. Cromwell
    a Congregationalist, this successful GENERAL commanded the New Model Army; he eventually became lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland
  32. Cavaliers
    generic NAME for the English supporters of the king in the English Civil War
  33. Laud
    Charles I's ARCHBISHOP of Canterbury; his championship of "high church" theology and ritual eventually led to political crisis, war between England and Scotland, and ultimately his execution by a vengeful Parliament
  34. Commonwealth
    this parliamentary republican REGIME or SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT followed the triumph over the king in the English Civil War but was overthrown several years later by Oliver Cromwell's military coup
  35. Calvin
    this French religious REFORMER's views on predestination, the sacraments, and church organization set him apart from Catholic and Lutheran theologians; he was a leader of the Swiss Reformation and the inspiration of radical Protestantism during the 16th and 17th centuries
  36. Titus Oats
    THIS NOTORIOUS LIAR concocted perjured testimony of a supposed conspiracy against Charles II; the result of this was the unjust execution of several innocent English Catholics
  37. Boyne
    by losing this 1690 battle at this PLACE in Ireland to William III of Orange, James II was never able to regain his throne lost two years before in the Glorious Revolution
  38. Epicycle
    an ORBIT tangential to the circumference of another orbit
  39. Bill of Rights
    the DOCUMENT promulgated by the English parliament of 1689 which limited the powers of monarchy, guaranteed the civil liberties of the privileged classes, and prohibited any Catholic from occupying the throne
  40. Act of Union
    through this LEGISLATION in 1707, England and Scotland were joined together in a single kingdom of Great Britain
  41. lit de justice
    whenever one of the parlements ignored or disobeyed his ordinances, Louis XIV convoked a FORMAL COURT SESSION of the offending parlement in his presence
  42. Grand Alliance
    this POLITICAL COALITION resulted after the Glorious Revolution when England joined together with the League of Augsburg
  43. Silesia
    the War of the Austrian Succession began when a Prussian king forcibly seized this Habsburg PROVINCE without justification or warning in violation of treaty obligations
  44. Malplaquet
    this was the bloodies BATTLE of the War of the Spanish Succession
  45. Comptroller-general
    the GENERIC NAME for the chief French royal financial minister in the 17th and 18th centuries; Colbert served in this capacity
  46. Discourse on the Origins of Inequality
    in this BOOK Rousseau argued that the institution of private property unfortunately provided the pretext for the coercive practices of current governments that protected the interests of the rich
  47. Locke
    this AUTHOR - either the last intellectual of the Scientific Revolution or the first Enlightment philosophe - wrote, among other works, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  48. Eugene of Savory
    He was the Emperor Leopold I's most successful subordinate general in wars both against the French and against the Turks
  49. Chancellor
    GENERIC NAME for the chief French royal legal officer during the 17th and 18th centuries
  50. Vauban
    He worked for Louis XIV and was the greatest military engineer of his era
  51. The Spirit of the Laws
    in this BOOK, Montesquieu not only advocated seperation of powers and checks-and-balances, but also attempted - according to rational principles - to identify which conditions suited certain types of government
  52. Jansen
    He was the 17th century Catholic bishop in France whose theological doctrines regarding predestination were partly condemned after his death as heretical/unorthodox teachings by both the pope and by Louis XIV
  53. Fronde
    named after the word for "slingshot" in French, this aristocratic REVOLT and REGIME seized power in 1648 and misruled France for five years
  54. Charles VI
    this HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR spent nearly his entire reign attempting to insure the unitary integrity of the Austrian Habsburg lands and to secure its inheritance by his eldest legitimate bodily heir, even if it be a woman; to that end he promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction
  55. The Wealth of Nations
    in this BOOK, Adam Smith argued that individuals seeking their own economic success are led by an "invisible hand" to promote, albeit unintentionally, the positive economic development of society as a whole
  56. Quesnay
    along with the other Physiocrats, he argued against mercantilism and against undue governmental interference in economic matters; for him the best indicator of national prosperity was agricultural productivity
  57. Council of Dispatches
    this CENTRAL GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTION under Louis XIV was primarily responsible for domestic policy matters in France
  58. Encyclopedia
    this WRITTEN WORK was amond the first of it's type/genre, was edited by Diderot and D'Alembert, and provided both a general compendium of past knowledge and an estimation of contemporary developments in science and technology
  59. Mercantilism
    this POLICY of close governmental control of a country's economy aimed to augment government revenue through, for example, the maximizing of exports and the minimizing of imports, it also held that treasury's accumulation of precious metals provided the best indicator of national wealth
  60. Holy Roman Empire
    by the 17th century this POLITICAL ENTITY and POLITY  comprised a loose confederation of more than 300 semi-autonomous German states
  61. Richelieu
    this great CARDINAL MINISTER of France proved an invaluable asset to Louis XIII, and not only in the furtherance of royal absolutism; he persuaded his master to cancel the military clauses of the Edict of Nantes and to support Protestant forces in the Thirty Years War
  62. Henry IV 
    after the extinction of the Valois royal dynasty in France, this MAN, hitherto a leader of the Protestant princely faction, secured the throne through right of inheritance, through conversion to Catholicism, and through the successful creation of centrust political faction
  63. Robot
    in Central Europe, this LABOR OBLIGATION was owed by unfree peasants to their landlords; a Habsburg ruler decreed its conversion to a cash payment to the landlords and the government
  64. Intendant
    GENERIC TERM for one of Louis XIV's thirty-odd OFFICERs who supervised a wide range of royal business in the provinces; they were periodically moved from district to district
  65. Leopold I
    this HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR and head of the Austrian Habsburgs faced two military challenges at the same time; namely the aggression of Louis XIV and an invasion by the Turks; in the first instance he achieved a stalemate, while in the second his armies reconquered large territories to the southeast
  66. Second Treatise on Government
    John Locke wrote this Book to combat royal absolutism and defend limited monarchical government; it greatly influenced America's Founding Fathers
  67. Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
    Frederick II of Prussia thought himself clever when he initiated this, but his rival - the Habsburg ruler Maria Theresa - was even cleverer in completing it; thus the stage was now set for the Seven Years' War
  68. Rousseau
    he was the AUTHOR of Emile the part-novel, part-educational reform treatise
  69. Council of Parties
    under Louis XIV, this CENTRAL GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTION made decisions in administrative disputes and dealt with ad hoc commissions from the king
  70. French and Indian War
    this was the NAME for the North American portion of the Seven Years' War whereby the British, British Americans (George Washington among them), and their Indian allies fought the French, French Canadians, and their Indian allies
  71. The Social Contract
    in this BOOK, Rousseau argued that individuals living within a political society must subordinate their individual wills to the general will in order to be truly "free"
  72. Laisser Faire
    the POLICY advocated by the Physiocrats and Adam Smith, namely that the government should not interfere unduly in economic activities
  73. John Churchill
    he was a preeminently successful English/British general in the War of the Spanish Succession; while his victories over the French in battle were rewarded with a dukedom (of Marlborough), his achievements were surpassed by his more famous 20th century descendant
  74. ein plus machen
    this MOTTO of King Frederick William I of Prussia stressed his desire for fiscal restraint in domestic government
  75. Brandenburg
    the Hohenzollern dynasty ruled this German PRINCIPALITY since the late Middle Ages
  76. Persian Letters
    in this BOOK, Montesquieu provided both a satire on contemporary French society and a provocative look at eastern sexual/marital concerns
  77. Deism
    this PHILOSOPHICAL RELIGION emphasized the rationality of God's being and his creation, preached the need for human virtue, but little else; while it eliminated a pretext for religious bigotry, this RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY was ultimately seen by some to ignore the emotional aspect of human nature and to be incapable of providing spiritual comfort
  78. Frederick I
    this RULER, the sone of Frederick William (III) the Great Elector, was a talented military leader and the first in/of Prussia
  79. Maria Theresa
    this HABSBURG RULER preferred Catholic clergymen as closest advisors, promoted German language and culture, was attacked by the contemporary Prussian king, and had lots of children.
  80. ecrasez l' infame
    Voltarie's MOTTO criticizing the inadequacy and flaws of traditional religion
  81. Beccaria
    in the Essays on Crimes and Punishments, he proposed three rules of natural justice and argued that neither torture nor capital punishment were appropriate public policies
  82. Joseph II
    HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR and enlightened absolutist whose inability to delegate authority and build political consensus led to his own early death and the partial failure of his reforms; his name became a byword for the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the subordination of the Catholic clergy to the state
  83. Tall Fellows
    a Prussian king displaed a childlike enthusiasm for the creation of this elite HOUSEHOLD GRENADIER REGIMENT
  84. Blank State
    Locke argued that the human mind at birth resembled this
  85. Sun King
    Louis XIV's admiring contemporaries gave him this NICKNAME
  86. Concordat of 1801
    this AGREEMENT or treaty between Bonaparte's Consulate government and the Papacy represented a compromise peace between the French state and the Catholic Church in France
  87. Third Estate
    in France before 1789, this societal GROUP contained everyone who was NOT from the lay aristocracy or the Catholic clergy
  88. Calonne
     this FINANCE MINISTER of Louis XVI tried unsuccessfully to introduce a new land tax to be paid by all landownders irrespective of status; the Assembly of Notables convened in 1787 at his and king's request in order to reform royal finances refused to accept such fiscal reform without the monarchy's commitment to share power with the aristocracy and higher clergy
  89. Commitee and General Security
    French revolutionary POLICE AGENCY that - in combination with two other emergency bodies - oversaw the Reign of Terror during 1793-94
  90. Corvee
    in France before 1789, this was the LABOR OBLIGATION owed by unfree peasants to work on roads, bridges, and canals
  91. Corsica
    Napoleon Bonaparte was born on this Mediterranean ISLAND in 1769, the year after it had become French possession
  92. Josephine de Beauharnals
    SHE was Napoleon Bonaparte's first wife and French empress; he divorced her because she could not bear him children
  93. Louis XV
    this 18th century FRENCH KING was lazy, willful, and - during his nearly 60 year-long reign - was generally incapable of mastering his government's financial problems
  94. Assignat
    a form of PAPER MONEY/GOVERNMENT BOND developed during the French Revolution, backed by land confiscated from the Catholic Church, and practically worthless after a period of years
  95. Pompadour
    an 18th century French king's amorous affair with this WOMAN was an open scandal, but her intelligence and good sense nonetheless made her a steadying influence on her royal lover
  96. Legislative Assembly
    this French political ASSEMBLY was created by the Constitution of 1791 and operated as the legislature of a limited constitutional monarchy until the violent collapse of the monarchy in August 1792 after the storming of the Tuileries Palace
  97. Varennes
    at this PALACE in 1791 the French royal family's attempt at flight from Paris was foiled by forces loyal to the revolution
  98. Watt
    the INVENTOR of the first practicable steam engine - one that would not blow-up frequently
  99. Fulton
    this American INVENTOR developed the first navigable steamboat - the Clermont - and sailed the Hudson River
  100. Civil Constitution  of the Clergy
    without any prior consultation with the pope and French bishops, the (Constituent) National Assembly promulgated in 1790 this DOCUMENT and thereby transformed the Catholic Church in France into a branch of the secular state
  101. Thermidor
    the French Revolutionary MONTH wherein the deposition and execution of Robespierre took place; hence the regime responsible for the end of the Reign on Terror is named according to it
  102. Constitution of 1795
    this DOCUMENT established a moderate constitutional republe in France - the Directory - that would attempt to redress the horrors of the Reign of Terror and provide stability in a time of war
  103. Arrondissement
    ONE of the new governmental SUBDISTRICTs created in France by the revolutionary government; the district-type called the department contained several of these
  104. Estates General
    absolutist French kings had managed to suppress this INSTITUTION, the legislature of France, for 175 years before it was convened again in 1789
  105. Robespierre
    the French LAWYER and leader of the Mountain Jacobins who was the prime architect and final victim of the Reign of Terror
  106. Consulate
    three-member executive COMMITTEE established by the Constitution of Year VIII AFTER the end of the Directory; Napoleon Bonaparte was the most prominent member of this group
  107. Cotton gin
    this DEVICE enabled a more rapid seperation of seed from cotton fiber and thus made the continuance of slavery possible in the southern US; with it 1 worker could be as productive as 50 without it
  108. Open Hearth Method
    Siemens developed in the 1860s this PROCESS for increased and more inexpensive production of steel by re-circulating hot exhaust gases through brick ducts in order to superheat intake gases
  109. Continental System
    this was created by Napolen Bonaparte in his 1806 Berlin Decree as a means of economic warfare against Britain by prohibiting British trade with the European continent
  110. Maupeou
    this CHANCELLOR of Louis XV was determined to break the ability of the parlements to obstruct taxation reforms proposed by the absolute monarchy; the death of his royal master and the conciliatory attitude of the new king, Louis XVI, doomed his policy
  111. Nelson
    this BRITISH ADMIRAL destroyed two French fleets during the Napoleonic Wars - one at Aboukir in Egypt and the other off the Spanish coast
  112. Hargreaves
    the INVENTOR of the spinning jenny, a human-powered device for spinning threads or yarn from multiple spindles
  113. National Assembly
    this French LEGISLATIVE BODY was created by the refusal by Third Estate deputies to deliberate and vote seperately from the deputies of the other two Estates
  114. Danton
    during the Reign of Terror Robespierre even had this MAN, a fellow radical Mountain Jacobin, condemned and executed as a "traitor" to France
  115. Girondins
    in the French Revolution - the FACTION of the Jacobins eventually opposed to the Mountain; named for the district in southern France whence many of their prominent leaders came; initially they were famous for their pro-war policies
  116. Kay
    INVENTOR of the flying shuttle - a human-powered device for weaving - in 1733
  117. Louis XVI
    this 18th century French KING was a decent man, a good husband, and a loving father; his weakness, pliability, and poor judgement contributed to the outbreak of revolution, his desposition, and his violent death 
  118. Directory
    five-member executive COMMITTEE established by the Constitution of 1795/Year III AFTER end of the Reign of Terror
  119. Bastille
    the attack on this Parisian FORTRESS on 14 July 1789 was the first significant violent act of the French Revolution; today the event is commemorated by the greatest secular holiday of the French Republe
  120. McAdam
    as you "hit the road" today to drive home - or anywhere else - you will probably travel on pavement inspired by the crushed stone and gravel surfaces first developed by this Scottish INVENTOR
  121. Rocket
    Stephenson developed this FIRST PRACTICAL STEAM LOCOMOTIVE during the 1820s
  122. Le Chapellier Law
    French Revolutionary LEGISLATION forbidding both the creation of labor unions and the workers' right to strike
  123. Darby
    this BUSINESSMAN's improvement of iron production methods led to his firm's construction - decades later - of the first all-iron bridge
  124. Trafalgar
    this NAVAL BATTLE off the coast of Spain in 1805 ended in a decisive victory for the British as they destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet bent on assisting Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Britain
  125. San Culottes
    literally "those without knee breeches" these MEMBERS of the Parisian lower middle and lower class mob often provided the "muscle" for revolutionary violence in the French capital
  126. Marie Antoinette
    the youngest child of an Austrian Habsburg empress, this WOMAN later married Louis XVI and because QUEEN OF FRANCE; unpopular on account of her allege extravagance, misconduct, and reactionary political beliefs, the Jacobins eventually executed HER by guillotine
  127. Great Fear
    this WAVE OF PEASANT VIOLENCE in several rural regions of France during summer 1789 was an expression of mass hysteria and led to the burning of aristocratic property, destruction of records, refusal to pay seigneurial dues, and occasional lynching of nobles and others
  128. Converter
    Bessemer developed this MANUFACTURING DEVICE to manufacture steel more rapidly and in larger quantities than before injecting air into molten pig iron
  129. Waterframe
    Richard Arkwright developed in 1769 this spinning DEVICE eventually powered by a running stream of river