Ch.33 Hematology/WBC/RBC...

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lrnino
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187940
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Ch.33 Hematology/WBC/RBC...
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2012-12-11 03:22:50
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Olson ADH
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Hematologic Disorders
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  1. What is a band cell?
    immature neutrophil
  2. What is a blast cell?
    Primative WBC
  3. What is fibrin and fibronogen?
    Fibrinogen is used to make fibrin, the protein base for clots.
  4. What is hemostasis?
    balance between clot formation and destruction.
  5. What is pancytopenia?
    abnormal decrease in WBC, RBC, platelets.
  6. What is plasminogen?
    Protein used to make plasmin(dissolves clots)
  7. What are reticulocytes?
    slightly immature RBC. 1%.
  8. Are "gamma gobulins" antibodies or RBC?
    Anitbodies
  9. If the bone marrow can't make RBC d/t some disease or something, the liver can take over by doing _______.
    Extramedullary hematopoeisis.
  10. B-cells are part of the ______ immunity.
    humoral
  11. T-cells are part of the _________ immunity.
    cell-mediated
  12. The drug ______ affects the intrinsic pathway. The lab is ___.
    Heparin. PTT.
  13. The drug ______ affects the extrinsic pathway. The lab for that is _____
    Warfarin/coumadin. PT.
  14. What protein causes clot destruction!?
    Plasmin.
  15. What vitamin is needed for clotting?
    K.
  16. What kinda foods can you get Vit K from?
    • Kale, Spinach, Collards, Swiss chard, Mustard
    • greens, Turnip greens, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Asparagus
  17. Vit K affects the extrinsic or instrinsic pathway? So it affects which drug? Heparin or coumadin?
    Extrinsic so it's Coumadin.
  18. What are common symptoms of anemia?
    • Fatigue
    • pallor
    • jaundice
    • tachypnea
    • tachycardia
  19. What vitamin do strict vegetarians lack because it comes from animal meat?
    Vit B12.
  20. Wht vitamin do people with partial or total gastrectomy lack because of lack of absorbtion?
    Vit B12.
  21. ____ and _____ are signs of vit b12 and oron deficiencies. 
    large erythrocytes/megaloblasts
  22. What does the lab work MCV measure?

    think mCizev.
    the average size of a RBC.
  23. Pernicious anemia is a vit b12 deficiency or iron?
    Vit B12.
  24. If MCV is elevated, is the erythrocyte large or small? So is it macro or microcytic anemia?

    What about vice versa?
    Elevated, large, macro.

    Decreased, small, micro.
  25. Is iron deficiency anemia the only microcytic anemia?
    Yes.
  26. What does the lab value MCH measure?

    think mcHEMO
    amount of hemoglobin in the blood.
  27. Iron def. anemia and thalassemia is hypochromic, that means it's pale -> less hemo for it's color. Is the MCH decreased or elevated?
    Decreased.
  28. Pernicious anemia is hyperchromic. That means there's a lot of hemo for it's color. Is the MCH going to be decreased or elevated?
    Elevated.
  29. What does MCHC  measure?

    think Hemo in Cell.
    concentration of hemo inside of the cell.
  30. Is VIT K affecting the extrinsic or intrinsic?
    EXTRINSIC.
  31. What is the most common anemia? Iron or pernicious?
    Iron
  32. Iron deficiency/thalassemia anemia is the only micro ones we've learned. That means they're small. So they're also hypochromic. What could be the cause?
    Lack of iron in diet. Usually it's bleeding.
  33. A person with iron anemia would present with classic anemia symptoms. They are?
    • Pallor
    • Brittle nails
    • soft tongue.
    • fatigue
    • SIDES OF THE MOUTH WOULD HAVE SORES.
  34. Anemia with renal disease is ____cytic and ____chromic.
    Normo/Normo
  35. What is the Tx for renal anemia?
    Iron PO

    • –Recombinant erythropoietin (Epogen,
    • Procrit)

    –Blood transfusion
  36. Why am I using a straw to take liquid iron?
    don't stain teeth
  37. Why can't I eat food with my iron?
    Food bothers absorption
  38. Why am i drinking OJ with my Iron?
    Ascorbic acid promotes absorption.
  39. My shit is black after taking Iron. Is that normal?
    yes.
  40. Why is the reticulocyte count the most valuble test in answering why thea anemia is there?
    Reticulocytes are immature RBC in the marrow.
  41. Many chronic imflammatory diseases are associated with normo/normo anemias. Why is it important to diagnose the chronic disease first?
    So you can treat the disease.
  42. What is aplastic anemia? What would a person present with? What Tx?
    DMG to marrow stem cells.

    Infection, anemia symptoms, bleeding.

    BMT/blood stem cell transplant.
  43. Which are the megaloblastic anemias?

    Vitb12
    iron
    folic acid
    • b12
    • acid
  44. What kinda foods are folate found?
    green vegies and liver
  45. Are alcoholics and malnutrition at risk for folic acids deficiency?
    Yes.
  46. What puts people at risk for folic acid anemia? What kinda obvious S/S do they have?
    • Alcoholism
    • preggs
    • soft tongue
    • angular chelitis
  47. What kinda tests can you do to me to find out if i have iron anemia?
    Serum folate

    CBCw/differential
  48. What is the person lacking in vit B12 anemia?
    intrinsic factor. it's used to absorb vit b12.
  49. Vegetarians are at risk for what kinda anemia?
    pernicious anemia because they lack vit b12.
  50. What is a common neurologic SE of pernicious anemia?
    ataxia.
  51. What cranial nerves can pernicious anemia (vit b12) affect?
    7,9,10/ 1,2,3
  52. What is the schelling test used to look for pernicious anemia (vitb12)?
    radioactive vit b12. if pee isn't radioactive, then body didn't absorb it and run it through the loops.

    if it is radioactive, then body ran it thorugh its course and you know it isn't pernicious anemia. 
  53. I have pernicious anema (vitb12). I have a folate deficiency. What can I do?
    Eat fruits and vegies. IV folate is only if yo uhave absorption probs.
  54. I have pernicious anemia (vitb12). I have a vitb12 deficiency. What can I do?
    Monthy IV of B12. Have to be for life. of Blood transfusion.
  55. Is sickle cell autosomal or sex-linked?
    Auto
  56. What kinda races are at risk for sickle cell?
    • black
    • middle east
    • mediterranean
    • aboriginal
    • (DARKNESSESS)
  57. Sickle cell can bring about vaso occlusive disease. What is that? How can I fix that? What can I do to avoid that?
    When then sickle cells occlude vessels, leading to ichemia. Pain will occur. Use NS or opiods. 

    Avoid the cold. hypoxia. dehydration. 
  58. How does the doctor find out if i have sickle cell?
    hemoglobin electrophoresis
  59. What kinda drugs are out there for me to take for sickle cell?
    •Hydroxyurea (Hydrea), a chemotherapy agent, has been shown to be effective in increasing or reactivating fetal hemoglobin levels in patients with sickle cell anemia, thereby decreasing the formation of sickled cells. 

    •Arginine has anti-sickling properties and enhances the availability of nitric oxide, the most potent vasodilator, resulting in decreased pulmonary artery pressure. Arginine may be useful in managing pulmonary hypertension and acute chest syndrome

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