MODA DRUGS (3)

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Author:
yl456
ID:
187941
Filename:
MODA DRUGS (3)
Updated:
2013-03-26 17:33:16
Tags:
Cardio Renal
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Description:
Mechanism and Effect
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  1. Nifedipine
    • Dihydropyridine
    • Blocks voltage-gated calcium channel
    • Used to treat hypertension and angina
  2. Diltiazem
    • Benzothiazepine
    • Blocks voltage-gated calcium channels
  3. Amiodarone
    • Class 3 antidysrhythmic agent
    • Prolongs action potential and refractory period
  4. Digoxin/Digitoxin
    • Cardiac glycoside
    • Alleviate oedema
    • Used for dysrhythmias
  5. Ouabain
    • Cardiac glycoside
    • Used experimentally to inhibit Na-K-ATPase
    • Too powerful to use clinically
  6. Bisoprolol
    • β1 antagonist
    • Used for stable heart failure
    • Potential danger of over inhibition
  7. Milrinone
    • Phosphodiesterase III inhibitor
    • Inodilator
    • Used in heart failure
    • Can produce dysrhythmias
  8. Pimobendan
    • Calcium senisitiser
    • Increases cardiac¬†Ca2+ binding efficiency
    • Used in canine dilated cardiomyopathy (esp Dobermans)
    • Used in canine mitral valve regurgitation
  9. Levosimendan
    • Calcium senisitiser
    • Increases cardiac Ca2+ binding efficiency
    • Only one used in human practice
  10. Bosentan
    • Non-specific endothelin receptor antagonist
    • Used for pulmonary arterial hypertension
  11. Streptokinase
    • Binds to plasminogen activator causing generation of plasmin
    • Leads to degradation of the fibrin in clots
    • 47kDA protein formed by haemolytic streptococci
  12. Anistreplase
    • Combination of plasminogen and anisoylated streptokinase
    • Degrades fibrin
  13. Alteplase
    • Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator
    • Breaks down clots
    • Single chain
    • Greater activity on plasminogen bound to fibrin
    • in clots
  14. Aspirin
    • Used alongside other therapies to prevent thrombosis
    • Can improve morbidity and mortality in heart disease combined with clopidogrel
  15. Clopidogrel
    • Inhibits platelet aggregation
    • By inhibiting binding of ADP to its receptor on platelets
  16. Eptifibatide
    • Inhibitor of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor
    • Cyclic heptapeptide inhibitor
  17. Tirofiban
    • Inhibitor of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor
    • Non-peptide inhibitor
    • Can be used for prevention of myocardial infarction in patients with unstable angina
  18. Heparin
    • Anticoagulant produced by basophils and mast cells
    • Activates¬†enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III
    • Can be used for unstable angina and after myocardial infarction
    • Has to be given by injection
  19. Warfarin
    • Inhibits clotting
    • Can be given orally
    • Inhibits synthesis of clotting factors II, VII, IX, X
    • Inhibits regulatory factors protein C, S, Z
    • Used for increased tendency for thrombosis
    • Can be used as prophylaxis for already formed blood clot
  20. Aminocaproic Acid
    • Inhibits excessive clot lysis
    • Competitively inhibits plasminogen activation
  21. Tranexamic Acid
    Analogue of aminocaproic acid
  22. Furosemide
    • Loop diuretic
    • Blocks Na-K-2Cl co-transport in the apical membrane in TAL
    • Weak inhibition of carbonic anhydrase
    • Acts in 10 minutes when given intravenously
  23. Hydrochlorothiazide
    • Thiazide diuretic
    • Some inhibition of carbonic anhydrase
    • Blocks Na-Cl cotransport in early distal tubule
  24. Amiloride
    • Potassium-sparing diuretic
    • Prevents Na+ reabsorption by blocking apical channels
    • Weak diuretic effect
  25. Triamterene
    • Potassium-sparing diuretic
    • Prevents Na+ reabsorption by blocking apical channels
    • Weak diuretic effect
  26. Spironolactone
    • Potassium-sparing diuretic
    • Aldosterone antagonist
    • Metabolised by canrenone in liver
  27. Potassium Canrenoate
    • Potassium-sparing diuretic
    • K+ salt of canrenone
  28. Acetazolamide
    • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
    • Inhibits NaHCO3 reabsorption in proximal and distal tubules
  29. Mannitol
    • Osmotic diuretic
    • Filtered in glomerulus and not reabsorbed
    • Increases urine volume
    • Decreases Na+ reabsorption in proximal tubule
  30. Captopril
    • ACE inhibitor
    • Antagonist of renin-angiotensin system
  31. Enalapril
    • ACE inhibitor
    • Converted into active metabolite enalaprilat in liver
  32. Saralasin
    • Angiotensin II partial agonist
    • Peptide
    • Not suitable for oral administration
  33. Losartan
    • Angiotensin II antagonist
    • Acts on AT1 receptor
    • Non-peptide
  34. a-Methylnoradrenaline
    • Sympathomimetic amine
    • Treatment of hypertension
  35. Clonidine
    • α2 adrenergic agonist
    • decreases cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance, lowering blood pressure
  36. Nicotine
    • nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist
    • Increases flow of adrenaline
  37. Propranolol
    • non specific ß-antagonist
    • class II sympathetic antagonist
  38. Reserpine
    • antihypertensive drug
    • used to dope racehorses
  39. Sildenafil
    Phosphodiesterase type V inhibitor

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