ant cultural section

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ant cultural section
2012-12-08 13:26:56
final exam ant

cultural section of ant final exam
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  1. A group of related spcies-provided a framework for the idea that humans,apes,and monkeys had a common ancestor.
  2. is the main process that increases the frequency of adaptive traits through time variation:every species is composed of a great variety of individulas some of which are better adopted to their environment than others.
    natural selection
  3. offspring inharit traits from their parents
  4. the frequency of adaptive traits gradually increases in subsequent generations
    differential reproductive sucess
  5. advantageous result in greater reproductive sucess in a particular environment
  6. traits will generally decline in frequency of even disappear eventually
  7. differences in pronuciation characteristic of a group
  8. the relationship that a person has to the blood relative of a spouse by virtue of the marrigage.
  9. origins of food production and settled life called sedentarism-how and why people in different places may have come to cultivate and domesticate plants and animals and to live in permanet villages
  10. ghost of dead relatives
    ancestor sprits
  11. art separated from everyday life
    symbols and motifs independent of context
    emphais on innovation
    identiy of artist is important product is paromdunt-commodization
    characteristics of art in industrialized contexts
  12. serves useful,practical purposes in everyday life and in ritual
    uses culturally significant symbols,motifs
    emphasis on repetition
    identity of artist usually not important
    emphasis on process
    art in nonidustrialized contexts
  13. econmics production
  14. two sided one's relatives on both the mother's and father's side are equal in importance or more usually in unimportance, distant relatives
    bilateral kinship
  15. using more than one language in the course of conversing
  16. one's biological relatives;relatives by birth
  17. children of siblings of the opposite sex. one's cross cousin are the father's sister's children and mother's brother's children
  18. a variety of a language spoken in a particular area or by a particular social group
  19. household duties
  20. modification or adaptation of plants and animals for use by humans.when people plant crops, we refer to the process as cultivation. it is only when the crops cultivated and the animals raised have been modifies are different form wild varieties that we speak of plant and animal
  21. in the reckoning of kinship the reference point or focal person
  22. the rule specifying marriage to a person within one's own group (kin,caste,community)
  23. the rule specifying marriage to a person from outside one's own group (kin or community)
  24. consider kin (related) but not blood related
    fictive kin
  25. firsthand experence with the people being studies and the usual means by which anthropological information is obtained.Regardless of other methods that anthropologists may use (e.g censuses,surveys) fieldwork usually involves participant observation for an extended period of time,ofter a year or more
  26. includes all the myths,legends,folktales,ballads,riddles,proverbs,and supersitions of a cultural group. Generally, transmitted orally,but it may also be written
  27. the form of subsistence technology in which food getting is dependent on the cultivation and dometicaton of plants and animals
    food production
  28. food-getting strategy that obtains wild plant and animal resources through gathering hunting,scavenging,or fising
    foraging or food collecting
  29. supernatural beings who were once human; the souls of dead people
  30. the ongoing spread of goods,people, informaton,and capital around the world
  31. supernatural beings of nonhuman origin who are named personalities often anthropomorphic
  32. the study of how languages change over time
    historical linguisitcs
  33. plant cultivation carried out with relatively simple tools and methods,nature is allowed to replace nutrients in the soil, in the absence of cultivated fields
  34. prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage between mother and son, father, and daughter, and brother and sister;ofter extends to other relatives
    incest taboo
  35. the performance of certain rituals that are believed to compel the supernatural powers to act in particular ways
  36. believing that there is only one high god and that all other supernatual beings are subordinate to or are alternative manifestaions of this supreme being
  37. family consisting of a married couple and their young children
    nuclear family
  38. a family consisting of two or more single parent,monogames,polygynous or polygonducts families linked by a blood tie.
    extended family
  39. children of siblings of the same sex. one's parallel cousins are the father's brother's children and the mother's sister's children
    parallel cousins
  40. living among the people being studied-observing, questioning and (when possible) taking part in the important events of the group, writing or otherwise recording notes on obervations, questions asked and answered, and things to check out later are parts of
    participant observation
  41. a form of  subsistence technology in which food-getting is based directly or indirectly on the maintenance of domesticated animals
  42. recongnizing many gods, none of whom is believed to be superordinate
  43. a feast among pacific Northwest Native Americans art which great quantites of food and goods are given to the guest in order to gain prestige for the host.
  44. generally full-time specialists with very high status , who are thought to be able to relate to superior or high gods beyond the ordinary person's access or control. (full time elected official)
  45. the accumulation of goods (or labor) by a particular person or in a particular place and their subsequent distribution
  46. any set of attitudes,beliefs, and practices pertaing to supernatural power whether that power rests in forces,gods spirits,ghosts,or demons
  47. a marked difference in size and apperance between males and females of a species
    sexual dimorphism
  48. a religious intermediary usually part-time whose primary function is to cure people through sacred songs,pantomne and other means;sometimes called a witch doctor by westerns.
  49. a form of shifting cultivation in which the natural vegetation is cut down and burned off. The cleared ground is used for a short time and then left to regenerate
  50. the use of certain materials to invoke supernatural powers to harm people
  51. unnamed supernatural beings of nonhuman origin who are beneath the gods in prestige and often closer to the people may be helpful, mischievous,or evil
  52. believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature
  53. the ways in which words are arranged to form phrases and sentences
  54. affiliation with a group of kin through descent links of one sex only
    unilineal descent
  55. a kin group whose members trace descent through known links in the female line from a common female ancestor
  56. the rule of descent that affililates individuals through known links in the male line from a common male ancestor
  57. the practice of attempting to harm people by supernatural means, but through emotions and thought alone, not through the use of tangible objects