Terms Exam 1.txt

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Terms Exam 1.txt
2012-12-08 13:59:30

Exam 1
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  1. abduction
    Movement of a limb away from the body.
  2. accredition
    Process whereby a professional association or nongovernmental agency grants recognition to a school or institution for demonstrated ability to meet predetermined criteria.
  3. acculturation
    The process of adapting to and adopting a new culture.
  4. acne
    "Inflammatory, papulopustular skin eruption, usually occurring on the face, neck, shoulders, and upper back."
  5. active listening
    "Listening attentively with the whole person�mind, body, and spirit. It includes listening for main and supportive ideas, acknowledging and responding, giving appropriate feedback, and paying attention to the other person's total communication, including the content, the intent, and the feelings expressed."
  6. active range-of-motion exercises
    Completion of exercise to the joint by the patient while doing activities of daily living or during joint assessment. (Potter 1177)
  7. active strategies of health promotion
    Activities that depend on the patient's being motivated to adopt a specific health program.
  8. activities of daily living (ADLs)
    "Activities usually performed in the course of a normal day in the patient's life, such as eating, dressing, bathing, brushing the teeth, or grooming. (Potter 1177)"
  9. activity tolerance
    Kind or amount of exercise or work a person is able to perform. (Potter 1177)
  10. acuity recording
    "Mechanism by which entries describing patient care activities are made over a 24-hour period. The activities are then translated into a rating score, or acuity score, that allows for a comparison of patients who vary by severity of illness. (Potter 1177)"
  11. acute illness
    "Illness characterized by symptoms that are of relatively short duration, are usually severe, and affect the functioning of the patient in all dimensions. (Potter 1177)"
  12. adduction
    Movement of a limb toward the body. (Potter 1177)
  13. adolescence
    The period in development between the onset of puberty and adulthood. It usually begins between 11 and 13 years of age. (Potter 1177)
  14. adventitious sounds
    Abnormal lung sounds heard with auscultation. (Potter 1177)
  15. afebrile
    Without fever. (Potter 1177)
  16. airborne precautions
    Safeguards designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious agents through the air a person breathes. (Potter 1177)
  17. Alzheimer's disease
    Disease of the brain parenchyma that causes a gradual and progressive decline in cognitive functioning. (Potter 1177)
  18. Ambularm
    Device used for the patient who climbs out of bed unassisted and is in danger of falling. This device is worn on the leg and signals when the leg is in a dependent position such as over the side rail or on the floor. (Potter 1177)
  19. anthropometric measurements
    "Body measures of height, weight, and skinfolds to evaluate muscle atrophy. (Potter 1178)"
  20. antibody
    "Immunoglobulins, essential to the immune system, that are produced by lymphoid tissue in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens. (Potter 1178)"
  21. antigen
    "Substance, usually a protein, that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically with that antibody. (Potter 1178)"
  22. antipyretic
    Substance or procedure that reduces fever. (Potter 1178)
  23. aphasia
    "a language disturbance in speaking, writing, or understanding"
  24. apical pluse
    Heartbeat as listened to with the bell or diaphragm of a stethoscope placed on the apex of the heart. (Potter 1178)
  25. apnea
    Cessation of airflow through the nose and mouth. (Potter 1178)
  26. asepsis
    Absence of germs or microorganisms. (Potter 1178)
  27. aseptic technique
    "Any health care procedure in which added precautions are used to prevent contamination of a person, object, or area by microorganisms. (Potter 1178)"
  28. assertive communication
    Type of communication based on a philosophy of protecting individual rights and responsibilities. It includes the ability to be self-directive in acting to accomplish goals and advocate for others. (Potter 1178)
  29. assessment
    "First step of the nursing process; activities required in the first step are data collection, data validation, data sorting, and data documentation. The purpose is to gather information for health problem identification. (Potter 1178)"
  30. assimilation
    To become absorbed into another culture and to adopt its characteristics. (Potter 1178)
  31. asymptomatic
    If clinical signs and symptoms are not present (Potter 229)
  32. atrophy
    Wasted or reduced size or physiological activity of a part of the body caused by disease or other influences. (Potter 1178)
  33. auscultation
    "Method of physical examination; listening to the sounds produced by the body, usually with a stethoscope. (Potter 1178)"
  34. auscultatory gap
    Disappearance of sound when obtaining a blood pressure; typically occurs between the first and second Korotkoff sounds. (Potter 1178)
  35. back-channeling
    "Active listening technique that prompts a respondent to continue telling a story or describing a situation. Involves use of phrases such as �Go on,� �Uh huh,� and �Tell me more.� (Potter 1178)"
  36. balance
    Position when the person's center of gravity is correctly positioned so that falling does not occur. (Potter 1178)
  37. base of support
    Surface area on which an object rests. (Potter 1217)
  38. bed boards
    Boards placed under the mattress of a bed that provide extra support to the mattress surface. (Potter 1178)
  39. bed rest
    Placement of the patient in bed for therapeutic reasons for a prescribed period. (Potter 1178)
  40. biases and prejudices
    Beliefs and attitudes associating negative permanent characteristics to people who are perceived as different from oneself. (Potter 1178)
  41. body alignment
    "Refers to the condition of joints, tendons, ligaments, and muscles in various body positions. (Potter 1217)"
  42. body image
    Persons� subjective concept of their physical appearance. (Potter 1179)
  43. body mechanics
    "Coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems to maintain proper balance, posture, and body alignment. (Potter 1179)"
  44. bone resorption
    Destruction of bone cells and release of calcium into the blood. (Potter 1179)
  45. bradycardia
    Slower-than-normal heart rate; heart contracts fewer than 60 times per minute. (Potter 1179)
  46. bradypnea
    Abnormally slow rate of breathing. (Potter 1179)
  47. bruit
    "Abnormal sound or murmur heard while auscultating an organ, gland, or artery. (Potter 1179)"
  48. carbon monoxide
    "Colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by the combustion of carbon or organic fuels. (Potter 1179)"
  49. caring
    "Universal phenomenon that influences the way we think, feel, and behave in relation to one another. (Potter 1179)"
  50. carriers
    Persons or animals who harbor and spread an organism that causes disease in others but do not become ill. (Potter 1179)
  51. case management plan
    "A multidisciplinary model for documenting patient care that usually includes plans for problems, key interventions, and expected outcomes for patients with a specific disease or condition. (Potter 1179)"
  52. center of gravity
    Midpoint or center of the weight of a body or object. (Potter 1179)
  53. cerumen
    Yellowish or brownish waxy secretion produced by sweat glands in the external ear. (Potter 1179)
  54. change-of-shift report
    Report that occurs between two scheduled nursing work shifts. Nurses communicate information about their assigned patients to nurses working on the next shift of duty. (Potter 1179)
  55. channel
    "Method used in the teaching-learning process to present content: visual, auditory, taste, smell. In the communication process, a method used to transmit a message: visual, auditory, touch. (Potter 1179)"
  56. charting by exception (CBE)
    Charting methodology in which data are entered only when there is an exception from what is normal or expected. Reduces time spent documenting in charting. It is a shorthand method for documenting normal findings and routine care. (Potter 1179)
  57. chronic illness
    "Illness that persists over a long time and affects physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual functioning. (Potter 1179)"
  58. circumduction
    The circular movement of a limb; the motion of the head of a bone within an articulating cavity such as the hip joint. (Potter 1218)
  59. climacteric
    "Physiological, developmental change that occurs in the male reproductive system between the ages of 45 and 60. (Potter 1179)"
  60. closed-ended questions
    A form of question that limits a respondent's answer to one or two words. (Potter 1179)
  61. collaborative interventions
    "Therapies that require the knowledge, skill, and expertise of multiple health care professionals. (Potter 1179)"
  62. collaborative problem
    Physiological complication that require the nurse to use nursing-prescribed and physician-prescribed interventions to maximize patient outcomes. (Potter 1179)
  63. colonization
    The presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage. (Potter 1180)
  64. colonized
    "The presence of bacteria on the surface or in the tissue of a wound without indications of infection such as purulent exudate, foul odor, or surrounding inflammation. All stage II, III, and IV pressure ulcers are colonized. (Potter 1218)"
  65. communicable disease
    Any disease that can be transmitted from one person or animal to another by direct or indirect contact or by vectors. (Potter 1180)
  66. communication
    "Ongoing, dynamic series of events that involves the transmission of meaning from sender to receiver. (Potter 1180)"
  67. computerized provider order entery (CPOE)
    "type of order entry system gaining popularity in the larger medical centers across the country, particularly with medication orders (Potter 160)"
  68. concept map
    A care-planning tool that assists in critical thinking and forming associations between a patient's nursing diagnoses and interventions. (Potter 1180)
  69. connotative meaning
    "The shade or interpretation of a word's meaning influenced by the thoughts, feelings, or ideas people have about the word. (Potter 1180)"
  70. consultation
    Process in which the help of a specialist is sought to identify ways to handle problems in patient management or in the planning and implementing of programs. (Potter 1180)
  71. contact precautions
    Safeguards designed to reduce the risk of transmission of epidemiologically important microorganisms by direct or indirect contact. (Potter 1180)
  72. contractures
    "Abnormal condition of a joint, characterized by flexion and fixation and caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers or by loss of normal elasticity of the skin. (Potter 1218)"
  73. core temperature
    Temperature of deep structures of the body. (Potter 1180)
  74. costovertebral angle (CVA)
    formed by the last rib and vertebral column is a landmark used during palpation of the kidney (Potter 353)
  75. counseling
    A problem-solving method used to help patients recognize and manage stress and to enhance interpersonal relationships; it helps patients examine alternatives and decide which choices are most helpful and appropriate. (Potter 1180)
  76. crackles
    "Fine bubbling sounds heard on auscultation of the lung; produced by air entering distal airways and alveoli, which contain serous secretions. (Potter 1180)"
  77. critical pathways
    "Tools used in managed care that incorporate the treatment interventions of caregivers from all disciplines who normally care for a patient. Designed for a specific care type, a pathway is used to manage the care of a patient throughout a projected length of stay. (Potter 1180)"
  78. crutch gait
    A gait achieved by a person using crutches. (Potter 1180)
  79. crutch palsy
    Temporary or permanent loss of sensation or movement resulting from pressure on axilla from crutch. (Potter 1218)
  80. cue
    "Information that a nurse acquires through hearing, visual observations, touch, and smell. (Potter 1180)"
  81. cultural assessment
    "A systematic and comprehensive examination of the cultural care values, beliefs, and practices of individuals, families, and communities. (Potter 1180)"
  82. cultural competence
    "Process in which the health care professional continually strives to achieve the ability and availability to work effectively with individuals, families, and communities. (Potter 1180)"
  83. culturally congruent care
    Care that fits the people's valued life patterns and sets of meanings generated from the people themselves. Sometimes this differs from the professionals� perspective on care. (Potter 1180)
  84. Culture Care Theory
    Leininger's theory that emphasizes culturally congruent care. (Potter 1181)
  85. cyanosis
    Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by an excess of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule. (Potter 1181)
  86. dangling
    To sit on the side of a bed with legs dependent or feet on the floor. (Potter 1218)
  87. data analysis
    Logical examination of and professional judgment about patient assessment data; used in the diagnostic process to derive a nursing diagnosis. (Potter 1181)
  88. data cluster
    A set of signs or symptoms that are grouped together in logical order. (Potter 1181)
  89. database
    "Store or bank of information, especially in a form that can be processed by computer. (Potter 1181)"
  90. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    "A thrombus in one of the deep veins of the body, most often the iliac or femoral vein. Symptoms include tenderness, pain, swelling, warmth, and discoloration of the skin. It is potentially life-threatening. (Potter 1218)"
  91. defining characteristics
    Related signs and symptoms or clusters of data that support the nursing diagnosis. (Potter 1181)
  92. delirium
    "An acute confusional state, which is potentially reversible and is often due to a physical cause. (Potter 1181)"
  93. dementia
    A generalized impairment of intellectual functioning that interferes with social and occupational functioning. (Potter 1181)
  94. denotative meaning
    "Meaning of a word shared by individuals who use a common language. The word �baseball� has the same meaning for all individuals who speak English, but the word �code� denotes cardiac arrest primarily to health care providers. (Potter 1181)"
  95. dental caries
    "Abnormal destructive condition in a tooth caused by a complex interaction of food, especially starches and sugars, with bacteria that form dental plaque. (Potter 1181)"
  96. dependent nursing interventions
    actions that require an order from a physician or another health care professional (Potter 123)
  97. depression
    (1) A reduction in happiness and well-being that contributes to physical and social limitations and complicates the treatment of concomitant medical conditions. It is usually reversible with treatment. (2) Fourth stage of K�bler-Ross's stages of grief and dying. In this stage the person realizes the full impact and significance of the loss. (Potter 1181)
  98. development
    Qualitative or observable aspects of the progressive changes one makes in adapting to the environment. (Potter 1181)
  99. diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)
    "Group of patients classified to establish a mechanism for health care reimbursement based on length of stay; classification is based on the following variables: primary and secondary diagnosis, comorbidities, primary and secondary procedures, and age. (Potter 1181)"
  100. diaphoresis
    "Secretion of sweat, especially profuse secretion associated with an elevated body temperature, physical exertion, or emotional stress. (Potter 1181)"
  101. diastolic pressure
    the minimal pressure exerted against the arterial wall at all times (Potter 270)
  102. direct care interventions
    "Treatments performed through interaction with the patient. For example, a patient may require medication administration, insertion of an intravenous infusion, or counseling during a time of grief. (Potter 1181)"
  103. disinfection
    "Process of destroying all pathogenic organisms, except spores. (Potter 1181)"
  104. disuse osteoporosis
    Reductions in skeletal mass routinely accompanying immobility or paralysis. (Potter 1181)
  105. diuresis
    Increased rate of formation and excretion of urine. (Potter 1181)
  106. documentation
    Written entry into the patient's medical record of all pertinent information about the patient. These entries validate the patient's problems and care and exist as a legal record. (Potter 1181)
  107. dorsal
    Pertaining to the back or posterior. (Potter 1219)
  108. dorsiflexion
    Flexion toward the back. (Potter 1181)
  109. dorsum
  110. drawsheet
    A special sheet placed over the regular sheet on a bed and used to move a person in bed. (Potter 1219)
  111. droplet precautions
    Safeguards designed to reduce the risk of droplet transmission of infectious agents. (Potter 1181)
  112. dyspnea
    Sensation of shortness of breath. (Potter 1181-1182)
  113. dysrhythmia
    Deviation from the normal pattern of the heartbeat. (Potter 1182)
  114. edema
    Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues. (Potter 1182)
  115. effleurage
    "the long, light, gliding strokes used in a massage"
  116. electronic health record (EHR)
    longitudinal electronic record of patient health information generated by one or more encounters in any care delivery setting (Potter 160)
  117. emic worldview
    An insider or native perspective. (Potter 1182)
  118. empathy
    Understanding and acceptance of a person's feelings and the ability to sense the person's private world. (Potter 1182)
  119. endogenous infection
    Infections produced within a cell or organism. (Potter 1182)
  120. enviroment
    "All of the many factors, such as physical and psychological, that influence or affect the life and survival of a person. (Potter 1182)"
  121. erythema
    Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes that is a result of dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries; sunburn is an example. (Potter 1182)
  122. ethnicity
    "A shared identity related to social and cultural heritage such as values, language, geographical space, and racial characteristics. (Potter 1182)"
  123. etic worldview
    An outsider's perspective. (Potter 1182)
  124. etiology
    Study of all factors that may be involved in the development of a disease. (Potter 1182)
  125. eupnea
    "Normal respirations that are quiet, effortless, and rhythmical. (Potter 1182)"
  126. evalution
    Determination of the extent to which established patient goals have been achieved. (Potter 1182)
  127. eversion
    "Turning outward or inside out, such as turning the foot outward at the ankle. (Potter 1219)"
  128. evidence-based practice
    "The use of current best evidence from nursing research, clinical expertise, practice trends, and patient preferences to guide nursing decisions about care provided to patients. (Potter 1182)"
  129. exogenous infection
    Infection originating outside an organ or part. (Potter 1182)
  130. expected outcome
    "Expected conditions of a patient at the end of therapy or of a disease process, including the degree of wellness and the need for continuing care, medications, support, counseling, or education. (Potter 1182)"
  131. extension
    Movement by certain joints that increases the angle between two adjoining bones. (Potter 1182)
  132. external rotation
    Rotation of a joint outward. (Potter 1219-1220)
  133. febrile
    Pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature. (Potter 1182)
  134. feedback
    Process in which the output of a given system is returned to the system. (Potter 1183)
  135. fever
    "Elevation in the hypothalamic set point, so that body temperature is regulated at a higher level. (Potter 1183)"
  136. flexion
    Movement decreasing the angle between two adjoining bones; bending of a limb. (Potter 1220)
  137. flora
    Microorganisms that live on or within a body to compete with disease-producing microorganisms and provide a natural immunity against certain infections. (Potter 1183)
  138. flow sheets
    Documents on which frequent observations or specific measurements are recorded. (Potter 1183)
  139. focus charting
    "A charting methodology for structuring progress notes according to the focus of the note, for example, symptoms and nursing diagnosis. Each note includes data, actions, and patient response. (Potter 1183)"
  140. foot boots
    "Soft, foot-shaped devices designed to reduce the risk of footdrop by maintaining the foot in dorsiflexion. (Potter 1183)"
  141. footboard
    "Board placed perpendicular to the mattress, parallel to and touching the plantar surface of a patient's feet and used to maintain dorsiflexion of the feet. (Potter 1220)"
  142. footdrop
    "An abnormal neuromuscular condition of the lower leg and foot, characterized by an inability to dorsiflex, or evert, the foot. (Potter 1183)"
  143. friction
    Effects of rubbing or the resistance that a moving body meets from the surface on which it moves; a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement. (Potter 1183)
  144. functional health patterns
    "Method for organizing assessment data based on the level of patient function in specific areas, for example, mobility. (Potter 1183)"
  145. gait
    "Manner or style of walking, including rhythm, cadence, and speed. (Potter 1183)"
  146. geriatrics
    Branch of health care dealing with the physiology and psychology of aging and with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting older adults. (Potter 1183)
  147. gingivitis
    swelling of the gums of the mouth
  148. goal
    "Desired results of nursing actions, set realistically by the nurse and patient as part of the planning stage of the nursing process. (Potter 1183)"
  149. graphic records
    Charting mechanism that allows for the recording of vital signs and weight in such a manner that caregivers can quickly note changes in the patient's status. (Potter 1183)
  150. growth
    "Measurable or quantitative aspect of an individual's increase in physical dimensions as a result of an increase in number of cells. Indicators of growth include changes in height, weight, and sexual characteristics. (Potter 1183)"
  151. halitosis
    foul-smelling breath (Potter 755)
  152. hand rolls
    Rolls of cloth that keep the thumb slightly adducted and in opposition to the fingers. (Potter 1183)
  153. hand-off report
    happens any time one health care provider transfers care of a patient to another health care provider (Potter 153)
  154. hand-wrist splints
    "Splints individually molded for the patient to maintain proper alignment of the thumb, slight adduction of the wrist, and slight dorsiflexion. (Potter 1183)"
  155. health
    "Dynamic state in which individuals adapt to their internal and external environments so that there is a state of physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual well-being. (Potter 1183)"
  156. health belief model
    Conceptual framework that describes a person's health behavior as an expression of the person's health beliefs (Potter 1183)
  157. health beliefs
    "Patient's personal beliefs about levels of wellness, which can motivate or impede participation in changing risk factors, participating in care, and selecting care options. (Potter 1183-1184)"
  158. health care information system (HIS)
    a group of systems used within a health care enterprise that support and enhance health care (Potter 156)
  159. health care-acquired infection (HAI)
    An infection that was not present or incubating at the time of admission to a health care setting. (Potter 1184)
  160. health history
    "Data collected about a patient's present level of wellness, changes in life patterns, sociocultural role, and mental and emotional reactions to illness. (Potter 1187)"
  161. health promotion
    Activities such as routine exercise and good nutrition that help patients maintain or enhance their present levels of health and reduce their risk of developing certain diseases. (Potter 1184)
  162. health promotion model
    "Defines health as a positive, dynamic state, not merely the absence of disease. The health promotion model emphasizes well-being, personal fulfillment, and self-actualization rather than reacting to the threat of illness. (Potter 1184)"
  163. heat exhaustion
    Abnormal condition caused by depletion of body fluid and electrolytes resulting from exposure to intense heat or the inability to acclimatize to heat. (Potter 1184)
  164. heat stroke
    Continued exposure to extreme heat raising the core body temperature to 40.5� C (105� F) or higher. (Potter 1184)
  165. hematocrit
    " 42% to 52%, males; 37% to 47%, females; (Potter 300)"
  166. hemiparesis
    Muscular weakness of one half of the body. (Potter 1220)
  167. hemiplegia
    Paralysis of one side of the body. (Potter 1220)
  168. hemoglobin
    "14 to 18 g/100 mL, males; 12 to 16 g/100 mL, females; (Potter 300)"
  169. holistic health
    Comprehensive view of the person as a biopsychosocial and spiritual being. (Potter 1184)
  170. hypercalcemis
    Greater-than-normal amount of calcium in the blood. (Potter 1184)
  171. hyperextention
    Position of maximal extension of a joint. (Potter 1184)
  172. hypertension
    Disorder characterized by an elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 120/80 mm Hg. (Potter 1184)
  173. hyperthermia
    Situation in which body temperature exceeds the set point. (Potter 1184)
  174. hypostatic pneumonia
    Pneumonia that results from fluid accumulation as a result of inactivity. (Potter 1184)
  175. hypotension
    Abnormal lowering of blood pressure that is inadequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of tissues. (Potter 1184)
  176. hypothermia
    "Abnormal lowering of body temperature below 35� C, or 95� F, usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold. (Potter 1184)"
  177. hypoxemia
    Arterial blood oxygen level less than 60 mm Hg; low oxygen level in the blood. (Potter 1184)
  178. identity
    "Component of self-concept characterized by one's persisting consciousness of being oneself, separate and distinct from others. (Potter 1184)"
  179. illness
    "(1) Abnormal process in which any aspect of a person's functioning is diminished or impaired compared with that person's previous condition. (2) The personal, interpersonal, and cultural reaction to disease. (Potter 1184)"
  180. illness behavior
    "Ways in which people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the health care system. (Potter 1184)"
  181. illness prevention
    Health education programs or activities directed toward protecting patients from threats or potential threats to health and toward minimizing risk factors. (Potter 1184)
  182. immobility
    "Inability to move about freely, caused by any condition in which movement is impaired or therapeutically restricted. (Potter 1184)"
  183. immunity
    The quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition. (Potter 1184)
  184. immunization
    A process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented. (Potter 1184)
  185. immunocomprised
    A state of defective or failed immune response that makes a person more likely to acquire an infection. (Potter 1221)
  186. implementation
    Initiation and completion of the nursing actions necessary to help the patient achieve health care goals. (Potter 1184)
  187. incident (occurrence) report
    Confidential document that describes any patient accident while the person is on the premises of a health care agency. (Potter 1184)
  188. independent nursing intervention
    Nurse-initiated interventions (Potter 123)
  189. indirect care intervention
    Treatments performed away from the patient but on behalf of the patient or group of patients. (Potter 1184)
  190. induration
    "Hardening of a tissue, particularly the skin, because of edema or inflammation. (Potter 1184)"
  191. infection
    The invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms that reproduce and multiply. (Potter 1184)
  192. inference
    (1) A judgment or interpretation of informational cues. (2) Taking one proposition as a given and guessing that another proposition follows. (Potter 1184-1185)
  193. inflammation
    Protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury. (Potter 1185)
  194. inflammatory response
    a protective reaction that neutralizes pathogens and repairs body cells. (Potter 230)
  195. informatics
    the science and art of turning data into information (Potter 155)
  196. information technology (IT)
    "refers to the management and processing of information, generally with the assistance of computers (Potter 156)"
  197. infrared thermometer
    "rely on thermal radiation from the ear canal, tympanic membrane, axilla, and temporal artery to measure body temperature. (Potter 266)"
  198. inspection
    "Method of physical examination by which the patient is visually systematically examined for appearance, structure, function, and behavior. (Potter 1185)"
  199. instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
    "Activities that are necessary to be independent in society beyond eating, grooming, transferring, and toileting and include such skills as shopping, preparing meals, banking, and taking medications. (Potter 1185)"
  200. integument
    "consists of the skin, hair, scalp, and nails (Potter 319)"
  201. intercostal space
    between the ribs (Potter 335)
  202. interdisciplinary care plan
    Disciplines involved in the patient's care develop a care plan (Potter 149)
  203. internal rotation
    Rotation of a joint inward. (Potter 1221)
  204. interpersonal communication
    Exchange of information between two persons or among persons in a small group. (Potter 1185)
  205. intrapersonal communication
    "Communication that occurs within an individual; that is, persons �talk with themselves� silently or form an idea in their own mind. (Potter 1185)"
  206. invasive procedure
    "A procedure in which the normal protective barrier of the skin or mucous membrane is broken or compromised (e.g., an intravenous puncture or a bladder catheterization). (Potter 1221)"
  207. inversion
    Turning something upside down. (Potter 1221)
  208. ischemia
    "Decreased blood supply to a body part, such as skin tissue, or to an organ, such as the heart. (Potter 1185)"
  209. isometric contraction
    Increased muscle tension without muscle shortening. (Potter 1222)
  210. isometric exercises
    "Activities that involve muscle tension without muscle shortening, do not have any beneficial effect on preventing orthostatic hypotension, but may improve activity tolerance. (Potter 1185)"
  211. jaundice
    "Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood. (Potter 1185)"
  212. joint contracture
    "Abnormality that may result in permanent condition of a joint, is characterized by flexion and fixation, and is caused by disuse, atrophy, and shortening of muscle fibers and surrounding joint tissues. (Potter 1185)"
  213. joints
    Connections between bones; classified according to structure and degree of mobility.
  214. Kardex
    Trade name for card-filing system that allows quick reference to the particular need of the patient for certain aspects of nursing care. (Potter 1185)
  215. Korotkoff sound
    Sound heard during the taking of blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. (Potter 1185)
  216. lateral flexion
    "A range of joint motion exercise during which the head is tilted as far as possible toward each shoulder, maintains neck mobility. (Potter 1222)"
  217. lateral violence
    "occurs in nurse-nurse interactions and includes behaviors such as withholding information, backbiting, making snide remarks, and nonverbal expressions of disapproval such as raising eyebrows or making faces (Potter 171)"
  218. leverage
    "Occurs when specific bones, such as the humerus, ulna, and radius, and the associated joints, such as the elbow joint, act together as a lever. (Potter 1222)"
  219. line of gravity
    An imaginary line that goes from the center of gravity to the base of support. (Potter 1222)
  220. logroll
    Maneuver used to turn a reclining patient from one side to the other or completely over without moving the spinal column out of alignment.
  221. maceration
    Softening and breaking down of skin from prolonged exposure to moisture. (Potter 1185)
  222. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    "A model, developed by Abram Maslow, used to explain human motivation. (Potter 1186)"
  223. maturation
    The genetically determined biological plan for growth and development. Physical growth and motor development are a function of maturation. (Potter 1186)
  224. mechanical lift
    "Use frame, canvas strips or chains, and hammock or canvas strips (Potter 707)"
  225. medical asepsis
    Procedures used to reduce the number of microorganisms and prevent their spread. (Potter 1186)
  226. medical disgnosis
    Formal statement of the disease entity or illness made by the physician or health care provider. (Potter 1186)
  227. menarche
    Onset of a girl's first menstruation. (Potter 1186)
  228. meneopause
    Physiological cessation of ovulation and menstruation that typically occurs during middle adulthood in women. (Potter 1186)
  229. message
    Information sent or expressed by sender in the communication process. (Potter 1186)
  230. metacommunication
    "Dependent not only on what is said but also on the relationship to the other person involved in the interaction. It is a message that conveys the sender's attitude toward the self and the message and the attitudes, feelings, and intentions toward the listener. (Potter 1186)"
  231. microorganisms
    "Microscopic entities, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, capable of carrying on living processes. (Potter 1186)"
  232. mobility
    Person's ability to move about freely. (Potter 1186)
  233. muscle tone
    Normal state of balanced muscle tension. (Potter 1186)
  234. NANDA International (NANDA-I)
    "North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, organized in 1973, which formally identifies, develops, and classifies nursing diagnoses. (Potter 1186)"
  235. necrotic
    Of or pertaining to the death of tissue in response to disease or injury. (Potter 1186)
  236. negative nitrogen balance
    Condition occurring when the body excretes more nitrogen than it takes in. (Potter 1187)
  237. neonate
    Stage of life from birth to 1 month of age. (Potter 1187)
  238. nonshivering thermogenesis
    "Occurs primarily in neonates. Because neonates cannot shiver, a limited amount of vascular brown adipose tissue present at birth can be metabolized for heat production. (Potter 1187)"
  239. nonverbal communication
    "Communication using expressions, gestures, body posture, and positioning rather than words. (Potter 1187)"
  240. nursing diagnosis
    "Formal statement of an actual or potential health problem that nurses can legally and independently treat. The second step of the nursing process, during which the patient's actual and potential unhealthy responses to an illness or condition are identified. (Potter 1187)"
  241. nursing diagnostic process
    "flows from the assessment process and includes data clustering, interpretation and analysis, identifying patient needs, and formulating the nursing diagnosis or collaborative problem (Potter 113)"
  242. nursing informatics
    results in an efficient and effective nursing information system (Potter 157)
  243. nursing intervention
    "Any treatment, based upon clinical judgment and knowledge, that a nurse performs to enhance patient outcomes. (Potter 1187)"
  244. nursing process
    "Systematic problem-solving method by which nurses individualize care for each patient. The five steps of the nursing process are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. (Potter 1187)"
  245. nursing-sensitive outcome
    "Outcomes that are within the scope of nursing practice; consequences or effects of nursing interventions that result in changes in the patient's symptoms, functional status, safety, psychological distress, or costs. (Potter 1187)"
  246. nurturant
    Behavior that involves caring for or fostering the well-being of another individual. (Potter 1187)
  247. objective data
    "Information that can be observed by others; free of feelings, perceptions, prejudices. (Potter 1187)"
  248. olfaction
    Pertaining to the sense of smell. (Potter 1187)
  249. open-ended questions
    A form of question that prompts a respondent to answer in more than one or two words. (Potter 1187)
  250. opposition
    The relation between the thumb and the other digits of the hand for the purpose of grasping objects between the thumb and fingers. This maneuver is used during range-of-joint-motion exercises to maintain grasping ability of a patient. (Potter 1223)
  251. orthopnea
    Abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand up to breathe comfortably. (Potter 1187)
  252. orthostatic hypotension
    Abnormally low blood pressure occurring when a person stands up. (Potter 1187)
  253. osteoblastic
    "Physiological activity that leads to the formation of specific bone tissue, osteoblasts. (Potter 1223)"
  254. osteoclastic
    "Physiological activity producing osteoclast bone cells that function in the development and periods of bone growth and repair, such as the breakdown and resorption of osseous tissue. (Potter 1223)"
  255. osteoporosis
    "Disorder characterized by abnormal rarefaction of bone, occurring most frequently in postmenopausal women, in sedentary or immobilized individuals, and in patients on long-term steroid therapy. (Potter 1187)"
  256. oximetry
    Procedure used to measure amount of oxygenated hemoglobin. (Potter 1223)
  257. oxygen saturation
    "The amount of hemoglobin fully saturated with oxygen, given as a percent value. (Potter 1187)"
  258. pallor
    Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin. (Potter 1187)
  259. palpation
    Method of physical examination whereby the fingers or hands of the examiner are applied to the patient's body for the purpose of feeling body parts underlying the skin. (Potter 1187-1188)
  260. paralysis
    An abnormal condition characterized by loss of muscle function or the loss of sensation. (Potter 1224)
  261. paresis
    Slight or partial paralysis related in some cases to local neuritis. (Potter 1224)
  262. passive range-of-motion exercises
    Range of movement through which a joint is moved with assistance. (Potter 1188)
  263. passive strategies of health promotion
    Activities that involve the patient as the recipient of actions by health care professionals. (Potter 1188)
  264. pathogenicity
    Ability of a pathogenic agent to produce a disease. (Potter 1188)
  265. pathogens
    Microorganisms capable of producing disease. (Potter 1188)
  266. pathological fractures
    Fractures resulting from weakened bone tissue; frequently caused by osteoporosis or neoplasms. (Potter 1188)
  267. peer-reviewed
    article is one submitted for publication and reviewed by a panel of experts familiar with the topic or subject matter of the article (Potter 77)
  268. percussion
    "Method of physical examination whereby the location, size, and density of a body part is determined by the tone obtained from the striking of short, sharp taps of the fingers. (Potter 1188)"
  269. performance improvement (PI)
    an organization analyzes and evaluates current performance to use results to develop focused improvement actions (Potter 84)
  270. perfusion
    (1) Passage of a fluid through a specific organ or an area of the body. (2) Therapeutic measure whereby a drug intended for an isolated part of the body is introduced via the bloodstream. (Potter 1188)
  271. perineal care
    Procedure prescribed for cleaning the genital and anal areas as part of the daily bath or after various obstetrical and gynecological procedures. (Potter 1188)
  272. petechiae
    Tiny purple or red spots that appear on skin as minute hemorrhages within dermal layers. (Potter 1188)
  273. phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein. (Potter 1188)
  274. PICO
    "P= Patient population of interest (Identify your patients by age, gender, ethnicity, disease, or health problem.); I= Intervention of interest (What is the intervention you want to use in practice (e.g., a treatment, diagnostic test, educational approach)?); C= Comparison of interest (What is the usual standard of care or current intervention you use now in practice?); O= Outcome (What result do you wish to achieve or observe as a result of an intervention (e.g., change in patient behavior, physical finding, patient perception)?); T= Type of study (What level of research study (e.g., systematic review or randomized controlled trial) do you wish to look for in the literature review?)"
  275. PIE note
    "Problem-oriented medical record; the four interdisciplinary sections are the database, problem list, care plan, and progress notes. (Potter 1188)"
  276. "Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA)"
    "Plan: Review available data to understand existing practice conditions or problems to identify the need for change; Do: Select an intervention on the basis of the data reviewed, and implement the change; Study: Study (evaluate) the results of the change; Act: If the process change is successful with positive outcomes, act on the practices by incorporating them into daily unit performance."
  277. planning
    Process of designing interventions to achieve the goals and outcomes of health care delivery. (Potter 1188)
  278. plantar flexion
    Toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle. (Potter 1188)
  279. polypharmacy
    Use of a number of different drugs by a patient who may have one or several health problems. (Potter 1188)
  280. postural hypotension
    Condition in which a normotensive person becomes light-headed or dizzy and experiences low blood pressure when rising to an upright position. (Potter 1225)
  281. posture
    Position of the body in relation to the surrounding space. (Potter 1188)
  282. premature ventricular contraction
    "A cardiac dysrhythmia characterized by a ventricular contraction preceding the expected contraction; it appears on an electrocardiogram as an early, wide QRS complex without a preceding P wave. (Potter 1225)"
  283. presence
    "The deep physical, psychological, and spiritual connection or engagement between a nurse and patient. (Potter 1189)"
  284. primary prevention
    First contact in a given episode of illness that leads to a decision regarding a course of action to prevent worsening of the health problem. (Potter 1189)
  285. problem-oriented medical reord (POMR)
    Method of recording data about the health status of a patient that fosters a collaborative problem-solving approach by all members of the health care team. (Potter 1189)
  286. pronation
    Movement of a body part so the front or ventral surface faces downward. (Potter 1225)
  287. prone
    Position of the patient lying face down. (Potter 1189)
  288. proprioception
    The body's ability to sense its position and movement in space. (Potter 1189)
  289. proprioceptive function
    Sensation that is achieved through stimuli originating from within the body regarding spatial position and muscular activity. (Potter 1225)
  290. puberty
    "Developmental period of emotional and physical changes, including the development of secondary sex characteristics and the onset of menstruation and ejaculation. (Potter 1189)"
  291. public communication
    Interaction of one individual with large groups of people. (Potter 1189)
  292. pulse deficit
    Condition that exists when the radial pulse is less than the ventricular rate as auscultated at the apex or seen on an electrocardiogram. The condition indicates a lack of peripheral perfusion for some of the heart contractions. (Potter 1189)
  293. pulse pressure
    "Difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures, normally 30 to 40 mm Hg. (Potter 1189)"
  294. pyrexia
    Abnormal elevation of the temperature of the body above 37� C (98.6� F) because of disease; same as fever. (Potter 1189)
  295. quality improvement (QI)
    Monitoring and evaluation of processes and outcomes in health care or any other business to identify opportunities for improvement. (Potter 1189)
  296. range of motion (ROM)
    "Range of movement of a joint, from maximum extension to maximum flexion, as measured in degrees of a circle. (Potter 1189)"
  297. reality orientation
    Therapeutic modality for restoring an individual's sense of the present. (Potter 1189)
  298. reciever
    Person to whom message is sent during the communication process. (Potter 1189)
  299. record
    Written form of communication that permanently documents information relevant to health care management. (Potter 1189)
  300. red blood cell count
    "4.7 to 6.1 million/mm3, males; 4.2 to 5.4 million/mm3, females (Potter 300)"
  301. referent
    Factor that motivates a person to communicate with another individual. (Potter 1189)
  302. related factor
    Any condition or event that accompanies or is linked with the patient's health care problem. (Potter 1190)
  303. reminiscence
    Recalling the past for the purpose of assigning new meaning to past experiences. (Potter 1190)
  304. renal calculi
    Calcium stones in the renal pelvis. (Potter 1190)
  305. reports
    "Transfer of information from the nurses on one shift to the nurses on the following shift. Report may also be given by one of the members of the nursing team to another health care provider, for example, a physician or therapist. (Potter 1190)"
  306. reservoir
    "A place where microorganisms survive, multiply, and await transfer to a susceptible host. (Potter 1190)"
  307. restraint
    Device to aid in the immobilization of a patient or patient's extremity. (Potter 1190)
  308. rick factor
    Any internal or external variable that makes a person or group more vulnerable to illness or an unhealthy event. (Potter 1190)
  309. role performance
    The way in which a person views his or her ability to carry out significant roles. (Potter 1190)
  310. rotation
    "A basic range of joint motion allowed by various joints the rotation of a bone around its central axis, such as shoulder rotation. (Potter 1225)"
  311. S1
    Symbol for the first heart sound in the cardiac cycle occurring with ventricular systole; it is associated with the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves. (Potter 1225)
  312. S2
    Symbol for the second heart sound in the cardiac cycle; it is associated with closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves just before ventricular diastole. (Potter 1225)
  313. sandbags
    Sand-filled plastic tubes that can be shaped to body contours. They can immobilize an extremity or maintain body alignment. (Potter 1190)
  314. scientific rationale
    "Reason, based on supporting literature, why a specific nursing action was chosen. (Potter 1190)"
  315. secodary prevention
    "Level of preventive medicine that focuses on early diagnosis, use of referral services, and rapid initiation of treatment to stop the progress of disease processes. (Potter 1190)"
  316. self-concept
    "Complex, dynamic integration of conscious and unconscious feelings, attitudes, and perceptions about one's identity, physical being, worth, and roles; how a person perceives and defines self. (Potter 1190)"
  317. self-esteem
    "Feeling of self-worth characterized by feelings of achievement, adequacy, self-confidence, and usefulness. (Potter 1190)"
  318. sender
    Person who initiates interpersonal communication by conveying a message. (Potter 1190)
  319. sentinel event
    an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury (Potter 84)
  320. sexual dysfunction
    Inability or difficulty in sexual functioning caused by physiological or psychological factors or both. (Potter 1190)
  321. sexual orientation
    "Clear, persistent erotic preference for a person of one sex or the other. (Potter 1190)"
  322. sexuality
    "�A function of the total personality � concerned with the biological, psychological, sociological, spiritual and culture variables of life �� (Sex Information and Education Council of the United States, 1980). (Potter 1190)"
  323. sexually transmitted infection
    "Infectious process spread through sexual contact, including oral, genital, or anal sexual activity. (Potter 1190)"
  324. shear
    Force exerted against the skin while the skin remains stationary and the bony structures move. (Potter 1190)
  325. side rails
    Bars positioned along the sides of the length of the bed or stretcher to reduce the patient's risk of falling. (Potter 1190)
  326. SOAP note
    "Progress note that focuses on a single patient problem and includes subjective and objective data, analysis, and planning; most often used in the POMR. (Potter 1191)"
  327. sphygmomanometer
    Device for measuring the arterial blood pressure that consists of an arm or leg cuff with an air bladder connected to a tube and a bulb for pumping air into the bladder and a gauge for indicating the amount of air pressure being exerted against the artery. (Potter 1191)
  328. standard of care
    Minimum level of care accepted to ensure high-quality care to patients. Standards of care define the types of therapies typically administered to patients with defined problems or needs. (Potter 1191)
  329. standard precautions
    Guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to reduce risk of transmission of blood-borne and other pathogens in hospitals. (Potter 1191)
  330. standing order
    "Written and approved documents containing rules, policies, procedures, regulations, and orders for the conduct of patient care in various stipulated clinical settings. (Potter 1191)"
  331. sterilization
    "(1) Rendering a person unable to produce children; accomplished by surgical, chemical, or other means. (2) A technique for destroying microorganisms using heat, water, chemicals, or gases. (Potter 1191)"
  332. stomatitis
    inflammation of the oral mucosa (Potter 767)
  333. subcultures
    "Various ethnic, religious, and other groups with distinct characteristics from the dominant culture. (Potter 1191)"
  334. subjective data
    Information gathered from patient statements; the patient's feelings and perceptions. Not verifiable by another except by inference. (Potter 1191)
  335. supination
    Movement of a body part so the front or ventral surface faces upward. (Potter 1226)
  336. supine
    Position of the patient in which the patient is resting on his or her back. (Potter 1191)
  337. suprainfection
    Secondary infection usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen. (Potter 1191)
  338. surgical asepsis
    Procedures used to eliminate any microorganisms from an area. Also called sterile technique. (Potter 1191)
  339. sympathy
    "Concern, sorrow, or pity felt by the nurse for the patient in which the nurse personally identifies with the patient's needs. Sympathy is a subjective look at another person's world that prevents a clear perspective of all sides of the issues confronting that person. (Potter 1191)"
  340. symptomatic
    If the pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms (Potter 229)
  341. systolics pressure
    "occurs when the heart's ventricular contraction, or systole, forces blood under high pressure into the aorta (Potter 270)"
  342. tachycardia
    Rapid regular heart rate ranging between 100 and 150 beats per minute. (Potter 1191)
  343. tachypnea
    Abnormally rapid rate of breathing. (Potter 1191)
  344. teratogens
    Chemical or physiological agents that may produce adverse effects in the embryo or fetus. (Potter 1191)
  345. tertiary prevention
    Activities directed toward rehabilitation rather than diagnosis and treatment. (Potter 1191)
  346. therapeutic communication
    Process in which the nurse consciously influences a patient or helps the patient to a better understanding through verbal and/or nonverbal communication. (Potter 1191-1192)
  347. thermoregulation
    Ability to control temperature within acceptable range. (Potter 1227)
  348. thrill
    Continuous palpable sensation like the purring of a cat. (Potter 1192)
  349. thrombus
    "Accumulation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, sometimes occluding the lumen of the vessel. (Potter 1192)"
  350. touch
    "To come in contact with another person, often conveying caring, emotional support, encouragement, or tenderness. (Potter 1192)"
  351. transcultural
    Concept of care extending across cultures that distinguishes nursing from other health disciplines. (Potter 1192)
  352. transcultural nursing
    A distinct discipline developed by Leininger that focuses on the comparative study of cultures to understand similarities and differences among groups of people.
  353. transfer report
    Verbal exchange of information between caregivers when a patient is moved from one nursing unit or health care setting to another. The report includes information necessary to maintain a consistent level of care from one setting to another.
  354. transmission-based precautions
    Patients with communicable diseases and infections that are easily transmissible to others require special precaution
  355. trapeze bar
    Metal triangular-shaped bar that can be suspended over a patient's bed from an overhanging frame; permits patients to move up and down in bed while in traction or some other encumbrance.
  356. trochanter rolls
    Rolled towel support placed against the hips and upper leg to prevent external rotation of the legs.
  357. turgor
    Normal resiliency of the skin caused by the outward pressure of the cells and interstitial fluid.
  358. tympanic
    Pertaining to a structure that resonates when struck; drumlike. (Potter 1227)
  359. validation
    "Act of confirming, verifying, or corroborating the accuracy of assessment data or the appropriateness of the care plan."
  360. variances
    The unexpected event that occurs during patient care and that is different from what is predicted on a CareMap. Variances or exceptions are interventions or outcomes that are not achieved as anticipated. Variance may be positive or negative.
  361. vasoconstriction
    "Narrowing of the lumen of any blood vessel, especially the arterioles and the veins in the blood reservoirs of the skin and abdominal viscera."
  362. vasodilation
    Increase in the diameter of a blood vessel caused by inhibition of its vasoconstrictor nerves or stimulation of dilator nerves.
  363. ventilation
    Respiratory process by which gases are moved into and out of the lungs.
  364. verbal communication
    The sending of messages from one individual to another or to a group of individuals through the spoken word.
  365. virulence
    The ability of an organism to rapidly produce disease.
  366. vital signs
    "Temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure."
  367. weight
    Force exerted on a body by the gravity of the earth. (Potter 1228)
  368. wellness education
    Activities that teach people how to care for themselves in a healthy manner.