Terms Exam 2.txt

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Terms Exam 2.txt
2012-12-08 14:04:50

Exam 2
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  1. absorption
    "Passage of drug molecules into the blood. Factors influencing drug absorption include route of administration, ability of the drug to dissolve, and conditions at the site of absorption. (Potter 1177)"
  2. additive effects
    "Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. For example, 1 + 1 = 2 (compare with synergistic effects). "
  3. adverse drug event
    Any undesirable occurrence related to administering or failing to administer a prescribed medication
  4. adverse drug reaction
    "Any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosages (as opposed to overdose). "
  5. adverse effects
    "Harmful or unintended effect of a medication, diagnostic test, or therapeutic intervention."
  6. afterload
    Resistance to left ventricular ejection; the work the heart must overcome to fully eject blood from the left ventricle. (Potter 1177)
  7. agonist
    A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body.
  8. Albumin
    An acute-phase protein involved in nutrient transport and the maintenance of oncotic pressure. Used as a measure of visceral protein status. Has a half-life of 14 to 20 days. (Potter 1216)
  9. allergic reactions
    Unfavorable physiological response to an allergen to which a person has previously been exposed and to which the person has developed antibodies.
  10. amino acids
    Organic compound of one or more basic groups and one or more carboxyl groups. Amino acids are the building blocks that construct proteins and the end products of protein digestion. (Potter 1177)
  11. anabolism
    Constructive metabolism characterized by conversion of simple substances into more complex compounds of living matter. (Potter 1177)
  12. anaphylatic reactions
    Hypersensitive condition induced by contact with certain antigens. (Potter 1177)
  13. anthropometry
    "Measurement of various body parts to determine nutritional and caloric status, muscular development, brain growth, and other parameters. (Potter 1178)"
  14. apothecary systam
    "System of measurement. The basic unit of weight is a grain. Weights derived from the grain are the gram, ounce, and pound. The basic measure for fluid is the minim. The fluidram, fluid ounce, pint, quart, and gallon are measures derived from the minim. (Potter 1178)"
  15. Aspiration
    The entry of gastric contents into the tracheobronchial passages. This increases a patient's risk for aspiratory pneumonia.
  16. atelectasis
    "Collapse of alveoli, preventing the normal respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. "
  17. atrioventricular (AV) node
    A portion of the cardiac conduction system located on the floor of the right atrium; it receives electrical impulses from the atrium and transmits them to the bundle of His. (Potter 1178)
  18. basal metabolic rate
    "Amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions."
  19. bioavailability
    A measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (from 0% to 100%).
  20. biotransformation
    "The chemical changes that a substance undergoes in the body, such as by the action of enzymes."
  21. blood-brain barrier
    "The barrier system that restricts the passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities (e.g., bacteria, viruses) between the bloodstream and the central nervous system. It still allows for the passage of essential substances such as oxygen. "
  22. body mass index (BMI)
    A measurement of weight in comparison to height. Used to categorize an individual's degree of adiposity. (Potter 1217)
  23. bolus
    "A large, round preparation of medicinal material for oral ingestion; a dose of a medication or a contrast material injected all at once intravenously."
  24. buccal
    Of or pertaining to the inside of the cheek or the gum next to the cheek. (Potter 1179)
  25. carbohydrayes
    "Dietary classification of foods comprising sugars, starches, cellulose, and gum. (Potter 1179)"
  26. cardiac index
    The adequacy of the cardiac output for an individual. It takes into account the body surface area (BSA) of the patient. (Potter 1179)
  27. cardiac output (CO)
    "Volume of blood expelled by the ventricles of the heart, equal to the amount of blood ejected at each beat, multiplied by the number of beats in the period of time used for computation (usually 1 minute)."
  28. cardiopulmonary rehabilitation
    "Actively assisting the patient with achieving and maintaining an optimal level of health through controlled physical exercise, nutrition counseling, relaxation and stress management techniques, prescribed medications and oxygen, and compliance. (Potter 1179)"
  29. cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    Basic emergency procedures for life support consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac massage. (Potter 1179)
  30. catabolism
    Breakdown of body tissue into simpler substances.
  31. chest percussion
    Striking of the chest wall with a cupped hand to promote mobilization and drainage of pulmonary secretions. (Potter 1179)
  32. chest physiotherapy
    Group of therapies used to mobilize pulmonary secretions for expectoration. (Potter 1179)
  33. chest tube
    "A catheter inserted through the thorax into the chest cavity for removing air or fluid, used after chest or heart surgery or pneumothorax. (Potter 1179)"
  34. contraindication
    "Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable. "
  35. coping
    Making an effort to manage psychological stress.
  36. crisis
    "Transition for better or worse in the course of a disease, usually indicated by a marked change in the intensity of signs and symptoms. (Potter 1180)"
  37. crisis intervention
    Use of therapeutic techniques directed toward helping a patient resolve a particular and immediate problem. (Potter 1180)
  38. cytochrome P-450
    The general name for a large class of enzymes that play a significant role in drug metabolism.
  39. dependence
    "A state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as for a drug"
  40. depolarization
  41. detoxify
    remove toxic qualities
  42. diaphragmatic breathing
    Respiration in which the abdomen moves out while the diaphragm descends on inspiration.
  43. dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
    Information on each vitamin or mineral to reflect a range of minimum to maximum amounts that avert deficiency or toxicity. (Potter 1181)
  44. diffusion
    Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  45. dissolution
    The process by which solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation.
  46. drug actions
    "The cellular processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells (e.g., the action of a drug on a receptor protein); also called mechanism of action"
  47. drug effects
    "The physiologic reactions of the body to a drug. They can be therapeutic or toxic and describe how the function of the body is affected as a whole by the drug. The terms onset, peak, and duration are used to describe drug effects (most often referring to therapeutic effects). "
  48. drug interaction
    Alteration in the pharmacologic activity of a given drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs; it is usually related to effects on the enzymes required for metabolism of the involved drugs.
  49. drug-induced teratogenesis
    The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs.
  50. duration of action
    The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response.
  51. dysphagia
    "Difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus."
  52. dysphagia
    Difficulty swallowing.
  53. dyspnea
    Sensation of shortness of breath.
  54. dysrhythmia
    Deviation from the normal pattern of the heartbeat.
  55. endorphins
    "Hormones that act on the mind like morphine and opiates, producing a sense of well-being and reducing pain. (Potter 1182)"
  56. enteral nutrition (EN)
    "Provision of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract when the patient cannot ingest, chew, or swallow food but can digest and absorb nutrients."
  57. enzymes
    "Protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including those related to the body's own physiologic processes as well as those related to drug metabolism. "
  58. first-pass effect
    The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream.
  59. flashback
    A recollection so strong that the individual thinks he or she is actually experiencing the trauma again or seeing it unfold before his or her eyes.
  60. gag reflex
    "A normal neural reflex elicited by touching the soft palate or posterior pharynx, the response being the elevation of the palate, retraction of the tongue, and contraction of the pharyngeal muscles. Tests for function of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves."
  61. general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
    "Generalized defense response of the body to stress, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion."
  62. gluconeogenesis
    "Formation of glucose or glycogen from substances that are not carbohydrates, such as protein or lipid."
  63. glycogenesis
    The process for storage of glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver.
  64. half-life
    "In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body, or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50% (also called elimination half-life). "
  65. hemoptysis
    Coughing up blood from the respiratory tract.
  66. hemothorax
    Accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleurae.
  67. humidification
    Process of adding water to gas.
  68. hypercapnia
    Greater-than-normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood; also called hypercarbia.
  69. hyperglycemia
    Elevated serum glucose levels.
  70. hyperventilation
    Respiratory rate in excess of that required to maintain normal carbon dioxide levels in the body tissues.
  71. hypoventilation
    Respiratory rate insufficient to prevent carbon dioxide retention.
  72. hypoxemia
    Arterial blood oxygen level less than 60 mm Hg; low oxygen level in the blood. (Potter 1184)
  73. hypoxia
    Inadequate cellular oxygenation that may result from a deficiency in the delivery or use of oxygen at the cellular level. (Potter 1184)
  74. idiosyncratic reaction
    Individual sensitivity to effects of a drug caused by inherited or other bodily constitution factors.
  75. infusions
    "Introduction of fluid into the vein, giving intravenous fluid over time."
  76. inhalation
    Method of medication delivery through the patient's respiratory tract. The respiratory tract provides a large surface area for drug absorption. Inhalation can be through the nasal or oral route.
  77. injections
    "Parenteral administration of medication; four major sites of injection: subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, and intradermal."
  78. intraarticular
    "Within a joint (e.g., intraarticular injection). "
  79. intradermal (ID)
    "Injection given between layers of the skin, into the dermis. Injections are given at a 5- to 15-degree angle."
  80. intramuscular (IM)
    Injections given into muscle tissue. The intramuscular route provides a fast rate of absorption that is related to the muscle's greater vascularity. Injections are given at a 90-degree angle.
  81. intraocular
    "Method of medication delivery that involves inserting a medication disk, similar to a contact lens, into the patient's eye."
  82. intrathecal
    "Within a sheath (e.g., the theca of the spinal cord, as in an intrathecal injection into the subarachnoid space). "
  83. intravenous (IV)
    Injection directly into the bloodstream. Action of the drug begins immediately when given intravenously.
  84. jejunostomy tube
    Hollow tube inserted into the jejunum through the abdominal wall for administration of liquefied foods to patients who have a high risk of aspiration.
  85. lipid
    Compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. (Potter 1185)
  86. malnutrition
    Any disorder of nutrition.
  87. medical nutrition therapy (MNT)
    "the use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition (Potter 928)"
  88. medication abuse
    when patients repeatedly use an addictive substance (Potter 377)
  89. medication allergy
    "Adverse reaction to a medication such as rash, chills, or gastrointestinal disturbances. Once a drug allergy occurs, the patient can no longer receive that particular medication. (Potter 1186)"
  90. medication dependence
    when a patient experiences withdrawal symptoms when the medication is stopped abruptly
  91. medication error
    Any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; it may or may not cause patient harm.
  92. medication interaction
    "The response when one drug modifies the action of another drug. The interaction can potentiate or diminish the actions of another drug, or it may alter the way a drug is metabolized, absorbed, or excreted."
  93. medication reconciliation
    "a process in which you compare the medications your patient took in the previous setting (e.g., home or another nursing unit) with the current medication orders whenever you admit a patient to a new health care setting"
  94. medication use process
    "The prescribing, dispensing, and administering of medications, and the monitoring of their effects. "
  95. metabolism
    "Aggregate of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms, resulting in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wastes, and other functions concerned with the distribution of nutrients in the blood after digestion. (Potter 1186)"
  96. metabolite
    "A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug (see later). Active metabolites are those that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if the parent drug is inactive (see prodrug). Inactive metabolites lack pharmacologic activity and are simply drug waste products awaiting excretion from the body (e.g., via the urinary, gastrointestinal, or respiratory tract). "
  97. metered-dose inhalers (MDIs)
    Device designed to deliver a measured dose of an inhalation drug. (Potter 1186)
  98. minerals
    Inorganic elements essential to the body because of their role as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
  99. monounsaturated fatty acid
    "A fatty acid in which some of the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are joined by double or triple bonds. Monounsaturated fatty acids have only one double or triple bond per molecule and are found as components of fats in such foods as fowls, almonds, pecans, cashew nuts, peanuts, and olive oil."
  100. mycardial contractility
    Measure of stretch of the cardiac muscle fiber. It can also affect stroke volume and cardiac output. Poor contraction decreases the amount of blood ejected by the ventricles during each contraction.
  101. myocardial infarction
    Necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by obstruction in a coronary artery. (Potter 1186)
  102. myocardial ischemia
    Condition that results when the supply of blood to the myocardium from the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the organ.
  103. national dysphagia diet
    "Released in October 2002, the National Dysphagia Diet provides recommendations for uniformity of dysphagia diets for all health care facilities. Solid and liquid diets are separated into four levels."
  104. nebulization
    Process of adding moisture to inspired air by the addition of water droplets. (Potter 1186)
  105. nitrogen balance
    The achievement of equal nitrogen input and output
  106. nonadherence
  107. normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
    The wave pattern on an electrocardiogram that indicates normal conduction of an electrical impulse through the myocardium. (Potter 1187)
  108. nutrients
  109. nutritional risk
    "The potential to become malnourished because of factors that are primary (e.g., inadequate intake) or secondary (e.g., disease). (Potter 1223)"
  110. nutritional screening
    The systematic process of identifying risk factors related to nutritional problems and malnutrition.
  111. onset of action
    The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing.
  112. ophthalmic medications
    medications given for eye conditions
  113. opioids
    "Drug substance, derived from opium or produced synthetically, that alters perception of pain and that with repeated use may result in physical and psychological dependence (narcotic)."
  114. orthopnea
    Abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand up to breathe comfortably.
  115. oxygen therapy
    Procedure in which oxygen is administered to a patient to relieve or prevent hypoxia.
  116. parent drug
    The chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body's biochemical reactions into its active or inactive metabolites (see metabolite). A parent drug that is not pharmacologically active itself is called a prodrug. A prodrug is then metabolized to pharmacologically active metabolites.
  117. parenteral administration
    Giving medication by a route other than the gastrointestinal tract.
  118. parenteral nutrition (PN)
    The administration of a nutritional solution into the vascular system.
  119. perfusion
    (1) Passage of a fluid through a specific organ or an area of the body. (2) Therapeutic measure whereby a drug intended for an isolated part of the body is introduced via the bloodstream.
  120. pharmaceutics
    "The science of preparing and dispensing drugs, including dosage form design"
  121. pharmacodynamics
    The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity. It examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors.
  122. pharmacogenetics
    "The study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response, including the nature of genetic aberrations that result in the absence, overabundance, or insufficiency of drug-metabolizing enzymes "
  123. pharmacognosy
    The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources
  124. pharmacokinetics
    "Study of how drugs enter the body, reach their site of action, are metabolized, and exit from the body."
  125. pharmacology
    The broadest term for the study or science of drugs
  126. pharmacotherapeutics
    The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs.
  127. pneumothorax
    Collection of air or gas in the pleural space.
  128. polypharmacy
    Use of a number of different drugs by a patient who may have one or several health problems.
  129. polyunsaturated fatty acid
    Fatty acid that has two or more carbon double bonds.
  130. postural drainage
    Use of positioning along with percussion and vibration to drain secretions from specific segments of the lungs and bronchi into the trachea.
  131. prealbumin
    "A plasma protein with a half-life of only 2 days, used as a marker of nutritional status."
  132. preload
    "Volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole, immediately before ventricular contraction."
  133. primary appraisal
    Evaluating an event for its personal meaning related to stress.
  134. prodrug
    An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body.
  135. productive cough
    Sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that effectively removes sputum from the respiratory tract and helps clear the airways.
  136. pursed-lip breathing
    Deep inspiration followed by prolonged expiration through pursed lips.
  137. receptor
    "A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. Receptors bind specific substances (e.g., drug molecules), and one or more corresponding cellular effects (drug actions) occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction. "
  138. registered dietitian (RD)
    A health care professional who has successfully completed an examination and maintains continuing education requirements in nutritional care for individuals and groups.
  139. repolarization
  140. respiration
    the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism
  141. saturated fatty acid
    Fatty acid in which each carbon in the chain has an attached hydrogen atom.
  142. secondary appraisal
    Evaluating one's possible coping strategies when confronted with a stressor.
  143. side effect
    Any reaction or consequence that results from medication or therapy.
  144. sinoatrial (SA) node
    Called the �pacemaker of the heart� because the origin of the normal heartbeat begins at the SA node. The SA node is in the right atrium next to the entrance of the superior vena cava.
  145. solution
    "Mixture of one or more substances dissolved in another substance. The molecules of each of the substances disperse homogeneously and do not change chemically. A solution may be a liquid, gas, or solid."
  146. steady state
    The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose.
  147. stress
    Physiological or psychological tension that threatens homeostasis or a person's psychological equilibrium.
  148. stress management
    "techniques, used to cope with generalized stress and arousal, aim to relax and soothe the body and mind"
  149. stressor
  150. stroke volume (SV)
    "Amount of blood ejected by the ventricles with each contraction. It can be affected by the amount of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (preload), the resistance to left ventricular ejection (afterload), and myocardial contractility."
  151. subcutaneous
    "Injection given into the connective tissue, under the dermis. The subcutaneous tissue absorbs drugs more slowly than those injected into muscle. Injections are usually given at an angle of 45 degrees."
  152. sublingual
    Route of medication administration in which the medication is placed underneath the patient's tongue.
  153. substrates
    "Substances (e.g., drugs or natural biochemicals in the body) on which an enzyme acts. "
  154. surfactant
    Chemical produced in the lung by alveolar type 2 cells that maintains the surface tension of the alveoli and keeps them from collapsing.
  155. synergistis effect
    Effect resulting from two drugs acting synergistically; the effect of the two drugs combined is greater than the effect that would be expected if the individual effects of the two drugs acting alone were added together.
  156. therapeutic drug monitoring
    The process of measuring drug peak and trough levels to gauge the level of a patient's drug exposure and allow adjustment of dosages with the goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity.
  157. therapeutic effect
    "Desired benefit of a medication, treatment, or procedure."
  158. therapeutic index
    The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug.
  159. toxic
    "The quality of being poisonous (i.e., injurious to health or dangerous to life). "
  160. toxic effects
    Effect of a medication that results in an adverse response.
  161. toxicity
    The condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities
  162. toxicology
    "The study of poisons, including toxic drug effects, and applicable treatments. "
  163. transdermal disk
    "Medication delivery device in which the medication is saturated on a waferlike disk, which is affixed to the patient's skin. This method ensures that the patient receives a continuous level of medication."
  164. trough level
    "The lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring. "
  165. unsaturated fatty acid
    Fatty acid in which an unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached and the carbon atoms attach to each other with a double bond.
  166. ventilation
    Respiratory process by which gases are moved into and out of the lungs.
  167. vibration
    "Fine, shaking pressure applied by hands to the chest wall only during exhalation."
  168. vitamins
    "Organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiological and metabolic functioning of the body. With few exceptions, vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet or dietary supplements."
  169. wheezing
    Adventitious lung sound caused by a severely narrowed bronchus.
  170. z-track injection
    Technique for injecting irritating preparations into muscle without tracking residual medication through sensitive tissues.
  171. Acquired disease
    "Any disease triggered by external factors and not directly caused by a person's genes (e.g., an infectious disease, noncongenital cardiovascular diseases)."
  172. active transport
    The active (energy-requiring) movement of a substance between different tissues via biomolecular pumping mechanisms contained within cell membranes. (al 36)
  173. Active Tubular Secretion
    "The renal tubules have pumps that actively secrete large endogenous substances and metabolites into the urine. Drugs and their Phase I metabolites that are conjugated by glucuronic acid or sulfate via Phase II metabolism are able to ""hitchhike"" on these active transport pumps and undergo active tubular secretion."
  174. affective domain
    "The most intangible component of the learning process. Affective behavior is conduct that expresses feelings, needs, beliefs, values, and opinions. (al 78)"
  175. air embolus
    A quantity of air that circulates in the bloodstream to eventually lodge in a blood vessel. (Potter 1216)
  176. alleles
    The two or more alternative forms of a gene that can occupy a specific locus (location) on a chromosome
  177. Alternative medicine
    "Herbal medicine, chiropractic, acupuncture, reflexology, and any other therapies traditionally not emphasized in Western medical schools but popular with many patients. (al 87)"
  178. ampule
    Small sterile glass or plastic container that usually contains a single dose of solution to be administered parenterally. (Potter 1216)
  179. Antianginal
    "A medication that dilates coronary arteries, improving blood flow to the myocardium to prevent angina. (Potter 1216)"
  180. bias
    Any systematic error in a measurement process. One common effort to avoid bias in research studies involves the use of blinded study designs (al 49)
  181. black box warning
    "A type of warning that appears in a drug's prescribing information, required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration alerting prescribers of serious adverse events that have occurred with the given drug. (al 49)"
  182. blind investigation
    A research design in which the subjects are purposely unaware of whether the substance they are administered is the drug under study or a placebo. This method serves to eliminate bias on the part of research subjects in reporting their body's responses to investigational drugs. (al 49)
  183. blunt-tip vial access cannula
    A needleless cannula designed to be inserted into vial adapter or for needle-less access to fill a syringe.
  184. bolus
    "A large, round preparation of medicinal material for oral ingestion; a dose of a medication or a contrast material injected all at once intravenously."
  185. cermen
    Earwax; a waxy secretion produced by apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal. (Potter 1217)
  186. chromatin
    A collective term for all of the chromosomal material within a given cell. (al 61)
  187. cognitive domain
    The domain involved in the learning and storage of basic knowledge. It is the thinking portion of the learning process and incorporates a person's previous experiences and perceptions. (al 78)
  188. Complementary medicine
    "Alternative medicine when used simultaneously with, rather than instead of, standard Western medicine."
  189. conventional medicine
    The practice of medicine as taught in Western medical schools.
  190. cycloplegic
    "Pertaining to a drug that paralyzes ciliary muscles of the eye, causing pupillary dilation for ophthalmological examination or surgery. (Potter 1218)"
  191. dermatitis
    An inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by erythema and pain or pruritus. (Potter 1219)
  192. dermatological
    Pertaining to the skin. (Potter 1219)
  193. double-blind investigation study
    A research design in which both the investigator(s) and the subjects are purposely unaware of whether the substance administered to a given subject is the drug under study or a placebo. This method eliminates bias on the part of both the investigator and the subject.
  194. dry powder inhaler (DPI)
    Handheld device that disperses powdered medication for inhalation. (Potter 1219)
  195. durg polymorphism
    "Variation in response to a drug because of a patient's age, gender, size, and/or body composition (al 49)"
  196. enterohepatic recycling
    "Intestinal bacteria have enzymes that can de-conjugate these molecules. As a result, the drug or metabolite can be reabsorbed."
  197. expedited drug approval
    "Acceleration of the usual investigational new drug approval process by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and pharmaceutical companies, usually for drugs used to treat life-threatening diseases "
  198. extravasation
    The inadvertent infiltration of intravenous fluids or medications into the subcutaneous tissues surrounding the infusion site. (Potter 1220)
  199. gene therapy
    New therapeutic technologies that directly target human genes in the treatment or prevention of illness
  200. genetic disease
    Any disorder caused directly by a genetic mechanism
  201. Genetic polymorphisms (PMs)
    "Allele variants that occur in the chromosomes of 1% or more of the general population (i.e., they occur too frequently to be caused by a random recurrent mutation)"
  202. Genetic predisposition
    "The presence of certain factors in a person's genetic makeup, or genome (see below), that increase the individual's likelihood of eventually developing one or more diseases. (al 61)"
  203. Glomerular Filtration
    The hydrostatic pressure within capillaries in the glomeruli forces low-molecular-weight drugs and metabolites into the urine in the renal tubules.
  204. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
    "An act that protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change jobs. It also protects patient information. If confidentiality of a patient is breached, severe fines may be imposed."
  205. hematemesis
    Vomiting of blood.
  206. hematuria
    Abnormal presence of blood in the urine.
  207. heparin lock
    An intravenous needle connected to a small �well� that allows for the intermittent injection of medication without the need for repeated venipuncture.
  208. hypodermoclysis
    "The injection of an isotonic or hypotonic solution into subcutaneous tissue to supply a continuous and large amount of fluid, electrolytes, and nutrients."
  209. induration
    "Hardening of a tissue, particularly the skin."
  210. infiltration
    Presence of intravenous fluids within the subcutaneous space surrounding a venipuncture site.
  211. informed consent
    "Written permission obtained from a patient consenting to the performance of a specific procedure (e.g., receiving an investigational drug), after the patient has been given information regarding the procedure deemed necessary for the patient to make a sound or �informed� decision."
  212. inherited disease
    Genetic diseases that result from defective alleles passed from parents to offspring. (al 61)
  213. investigational new drug (IND)
    "A drug not approved for marketing by the FDA but available for use in experiments to determine its safety and efficacy; also, the actual name of the category of application that the drug manufacturer submits to the FDA to obtain permission for human (clinical) studies following successful completion of animal (preclinical) studies."
  214. Investigational new drug application
    The type of application that a drug manufacturer submits to the FDA following successful completion of required human research studies. (al 49)
  215. latrogenic effects
    Unintentional adverse effects that are caused by the actions of a prescriber or other health care professional or by a specific treatment. (al 87)
  216. legend drugs
    Another name for prescription drugs. (al 49)
  217. mydriatics
    "Ophthalmic preparations that stimulate the sympathetic nerve fibers or block parasympathetic nerve fibers of the eye, temporarily paralyzing the iris sphincter muscle."
  218. narcotic
    "A legal term established under the Harrison Antinarcotic Act of 1914. It originally applied to drugs that produced insensibility or stupor, especially the opioids (e.g., morphine, heroin). The term is currently used in clinical settings to refer to any medically administered controlled substance and in legal settings to refer to any illicit or �street� drug. (al 49-50)"
  219. nares
    The pairs of anterior and posterior openings in the nose that allow for passage of air to the pharynx and lungs.
  220. nasal
    Of or pertaining to the nose and nasal cavity.
  221. neonate
    Pertaining to a person younger than 1 month of age; newborn infant. (al 36)
  222. nomogram
    A graphic tool for estimating drug dosages using various body measurements. (al 36)
  223. orphan drugs
    A special category of drugs that have been identified to help treat patients with rare diseases. (al 50)
  224. otic
    Of or pertaining to the ear. (Potter 1223)
  225. Passive Tubular Reabsorption
    Lipid-soluble drugs that were filtered into the urine from the glomerular capillaries can move across the membranes of the tubule and efferent arteriole back into the blood.
  226. Peak action
    Time it takes for a drug to reach its highest effective concentration. (Potter 1224)
  227. Peak Concentration
    The highest effective concentration of a drug in the serum.
  228. personalized medicine
    The use of tools such as molecular and genetic characterizations of both disease processes and the patient for the customization of drug therapy. (al 61)
  229. pH-Dependent Ionization
    Giving a patient a drug that alters urinary pH can help to keep toxic drugs ionized in the urine and reduce passive reabsorption.
  230. phelbitis
    Inflammation of a vein. (Potter 1224)
  231. phenotype
    The expression in the body of a genetic trait that results from a person's particular genotype (see earlier) for that trait. (al 62)
  232. phytochemicals
    The pharmacologically active ingredients in herbal remedies. (al 87)
  233. piggyback infusion
    Method for administering intravenous (IV) medications intermittently; a piggyback IV set is a supplementary set that connects with the primary IV tubing. (Potter 1224)
  234. Plateu
    "Blood serum concentration reached and maintained after repeated, fixed doses of a drug. (Potter 1224)"
  235. proteome
    The entire set of proteins produced from the information encoded in an organism's genome. (al 62)
  236. proteomics
    "The detailed study of the proteome, including all biologic actions of proteins. (al 62)"
  237. prurtius
    The symptom of itching. (Potter 1225)
  238. psychomotor domain
    The domain involved in the learning of a new procedure or skill; often called the doing domain. (al 78)
  239. Recombinant DNA (rDNA)
    DNA molecules that have been artificially synthesized or modified in a laboratory setting. (al 62)
  240. saline lock
    See heparin lock. (Potter 1225)
  241. serum half-life
    The time it takes for the excretion process to lower the serum medication concentration by half. (Potter 1226)
  242. summation
    Occurs when the combined effect of two drugs produces a result that equals the sum of the individual effects of each drug. (Potter 1226)
  243. suspension
    "A liquid in which small particles of a solid are dispersed, but not dissolved, and in which the dispersal is maintained by stirring or shaking the mixture. (Potter 1226)"
  244. sympathomimetic
    A pharmacological agent that mimics the effects of stimulation of organs and structures by the sympathetic nervous system. (Potter 1226)
  245. tandem setup
    An infusion mini-bag and tubing inserted into an injection port farthest away from a patient; used for administration of a prepared intravenous admixture. (Potter 1227)
  246. unit-dose system
    System of drug distribution in which a portable cart containing a drawer for each patient's medications is prepared by the pharmacy with a 24-hour supply of medications. (Potter 1227)
  247. vertigo
    "A sensation of faintness or an inability to maintain normal balance in a standing or seated position, sometimes associated with giddiness, mental confusion, nausea, and weakness."
  248. vial
    Glass container with a metal-enclosed rubber seal.
  249. volume-control administration set (Volutrol)
    "Used to administer hourly fluids and intermittent intravenous medications, usually to children. A fluid chamber holds 100 to 150 mL of fluid to be infused over a specific period. (Potter 1228)"