chapter 12 psychology

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chapter 12 psychology
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  1. ________ is defined as an inferred process within a person or animal, which causes that organism to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation.

    A) The need for achievement
    B) Motivation
    C) A drive
    D) A value
    B
  2. For many decades, the study of motivation was dominated by a focus on_______

    A) mastery goals.
    B) performance goals.
    C) biological drives.
    D) the need for affiliation.
    C
  3. ________ is a state of tension resulting from the deprivation of physical needs, such as those for food and water.

    A) The need for achievement
    B) A value
    C) A drive
    D) Motivation
    C
  4. The pursuit of an activity for its own sake is called _______

    A) intrinsic motivation.
    B) biological drives.
    C) the need for affiliation.
    D) performance goals.
    A
  5. Which of the following is an example of an intrinsically motivated behavior? _______

    A) Bringing your mother flowers on her birthday because it is expected
    B) Eating a ham sandwich because you are hungry even though you don't like ham
    C) Working to earn a paycheck
    D) Reading a mystery book by your favorite author
    D
  6. The pursuit of an activity for external rewards is called _______

    A) intrinsic motivation.
    B) extrinsic motivation.
    C) a mastery goal.
    D) the need for affiliation.
    B
  7. ________ is the genetically influenced weight range of an individual, maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves, and metabolism.

    A) Extrinsic weight
    B) Goal weight
    C) Intrinsic weight
    D) Set point
    D
  8. Although many factors interact to influence body weight, ________ is probably the most important.

    A) genetics
    B) psychological needs
    C) cultural rules
    D) individual habits
    A
  9. The heritability of weight and body fat is estimated to be _______

    A) between .80 and .90.
    B) between .40 and .70.
    C) between .70 and .80.
    D) between .30 and .50.
    B
  10. Human evolution seems to have predisposed the body to ______

    A) require large quantities of food when feeling emotionally disturbed or separated from others.
    B) store calories when food is abundant in order to aid survival when food is scarce.
    C) speed up metabolism when tasty food is easily available in order to prevent excessive weight gain.
    D) be most fertile when women have thin, muscular figures with little body fat.
    B
  11. 11) When crop failures are common in a country, then ______

    A) the cultural ideal is to have a soft, thin body.
    B) the cultural ideal is to be fat.
    C) the cultural ideal is to be slender.
    D) the cultural ideal is to be muscular.
    B
  12. When obese women combined diet and moderate physical activity, ______
    A) they lost weight only when they also received leptin injections.
    B) they lost weight and their metabolic rates rose.
    C) they found that exercise had no effect on weight gain or loss.
    D) they gained weight due to increased hunger.
    B
  13. ________ is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food, and emaciation.

    A) Anorexia nervosa
    B) Leptin
    C) Bulimia
    D) Body-image distortion
    A
  14. An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating followed by forced vomiting or the use of laxatives is called ______

    A) Adonis complex.
    B) bulimia.
    C) anorexia nervosa.
    D) self-starvation.
    B
  15. Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to eating disorders? ______

    A) High self-esteem
    B) Pressure from parents and friends
    C) Perfectionism
    D) Depression and anxiety
    A
  16. Rising rates of obesity are best explained by ______
    A) genetic changes over the past few decades.
    B) the increase in eating disorders.
    C) too much high-fat food and too little exercise.
    D) a lack of willpower.
    C
  17. Which of the following is NOT an attachment style in love relationships? ______
    A) Intimate attachment
    B) Avoidant attachment
    C) Anxious-ambivalent attachment
    D) Secure attachment
    A
  18. About ________ of adults experience secure attachments in romantic relationships.

    A) 64 percent
    B) 50 percent
    C) 35 percent
    D) 72 percent
    A
  19. About ________ of adults experience secure attachments in romantic relationships. 18) ______
    A) 64 percent
    B) 50 percent
    C) 35 percent
    D) 72 percent
    C
  20. How do the three primary ingredients of love (passion, intimacy, and commitment) change over time in a relationship? 20) ______
    A) Passion increases and intimacy decreases.
    B) Intimacy, passion, and commitment all increase.
    C) Passion and intimacy increase.
    D) Intimacy increases and passion decreases.
    D
  21. Based on the gender stereotypes of contemporary Western society, a women might express feelings of love ________ whereas a man might express feelings of love ________ 21) ______
    A) by watching TV together / by inviting her fishing.
    B) by working his stamp collection with him / by saying, "I love you!"
    C) by helping him financially / by going to her favorite movie twice.
    D) by saying, "I love you!" / by filling her gas tank.
    D
  22. Which of the following is NOT one of the findings of Kinsey's research? 22) ______
    A) Women have a lesser sexual capacity than men.
    B) Males and females are alike in their basic anatomy and physiology.
    C) Sexual motivation of men and women does not differ.
    D) Women care more about affection than sexual satisfaction
    D
  23. Which of the following is NOT one of the six factors listed in the text as underlying reasons for having sex? 23) ______
    A) Partner approval B) Necessity or obligation
    C) Intimacy D) Peer approval
    B
  24. Studies of hundreds of college students and older adults found that in motivation for sex 24) ______
    A) men were more likely than women to list intimacy as a motive for sex.
    B) women were more likely than men to list self-affirmation as a motive for sex.
    C) women were more likely than men to list intimacy as a motive for sex.
    D) men were more likely than women to list peer approval as a motive for sex.
    D
  25. Risky sexual behaviors, such as sex with many partners and a failure to use birth control, are strongly associated with which motives for sex? 25) ______
    A) Self-affirmation, peer approval, and enhancement
    B) Enhancement, self-affirmation, and coping
    C) Coping, partner approval, and peer approval
    D) Partner approval, enhancement, and self-affirmation
    C
  26. A nationally representative survey of Americans between the ages of 18 and 59 was conducted to study gender and perceptions of sexual coercion. The results showed that about ________ of the women said that a man had forced them to do something sexually that they did not want to do. 26) ______
    A) 5 percent B) 25 percent C) 15 percent D) 35 percent
    B
  27. Which of the following statements is NOT supported by research? 27) ______
    A) Sexually aggressive males are usually insecure and defensive.
    B) Eighty percent of all rape victims are assaulted by strangers.
    C) Peer approval motivates many college-age men to rape.
    D) Male-male rape is usually intended to humiliate the victim
    B
  28. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons for rape given in the text? 28) ______
    A) Unrequited love
    B) Anger, revenge, or a desire to dominate or humiliate
    C) Peer approval
    D) Narcissism and hostility toward women
    A
  29. Which of the following would be predicted by the traditional evolutionary view of sexual scripts? 29) ______
    A) Youthful males prefer monogamous relationships.
    B) Females will tend to reject casual sex.
    C) Youthful females will try to mate with many males.
    D) Males will tend to shop for the best "genetic deal" they can get in a woman.
    B
  30. Historically, when women have needed a relationship for financial security, sex was regarded as 30) ______
    A) an asset to be rationed to achieve a goal. B) an art to cultivate, like the art of cooking.
    C) an act to be "gotten through" quickly. D) a pleasurable activity to be enjoyed.
    A
  31. Research concerning the riddle of sexual orientation suggests that 31) ______
    A) most gay men report being seduced by an older adult during late childhood or early adolescence.
    B) from an early age, gay men recall that they rejected the typical boy role and toys.
    C) the majority of children of gay parents become gay themselves when they reach adolescence.
    D) the parents of gay men were unconcerned about their son's nonconformity with the traditional male role.
    B
  32. The authors would be most likely to agree with all of the following statements about work EXCEPT 32) ______
    A) poets work, even though they are paid erratically.
    B) homemakers work at running a household.
    C) students work at studying.
    D) work is paid employment.
    D
  33. ________ is a learned motive to meet personal standards of success and excellence in a chosen area. 33) ______
    A) The need for performance B) The need for power
    C) The need for status D) The need for achievement
    D
  34. Dr. Boatwright asks a client to interpret a series of drawings that show scenes of people. Which of the following tests is she administering? 34) ______
    A) TAT B) WISC C) Rorschach D) MMPI
    A
  35. ________ are positive experiences that you seek directly. 35) ______
    A) Mastery goals B) Learning goals
    C) Approach goals D) Performance goals
    C
  36. ________ involve the effort to avoid unpleasant experiences. 36) ______
    A) Performance goals B) Avoidance goals
    C) Learning goals D) Mastery goals
    B
  37. For a goal to improve motivation and performance, it should meet all of the following conditions EXCEPT 37) ______
    A) the goal is performance-oriented. B) the goal is specific.
    C) the goal is challenging. D) the goal is an approach goal.
    A
  38. Evan wants to earn a black belt in karate. Which way of thinking is most likely to help Evan reach his goal? 38) ______
    A) "I will try not to fool around when I should be practicing."
    B) "I will set specific goals that are tough but attainable."
    C) "I should make sure I don't lose any matches."
    D) "I will set specific goals that I know I can reach easily."
    B
  39. Katarina has the conviction that she can do what she set out to do, whether it is mastering a new skill or reaching her goal to become a U.S. citizen. Psychologists call this feeling of competence 39) ______
    A) the need for achievement. B) a performance goal.
    C) self-efficacy. D) drive.
    C
  40. People who ________ are quick to cope with problems that befall them and keep striving for their goals even in the face of failure. 40) ______
    A) have a strong need to achieve
    B) place a high value on financial success
    C) have a strong sense of self-efficacy
    D) have reached the top of the hierarchy of needs
    C
  41. An expectation that comes true because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about is called 41) ______
    A) a mastery goal. B) self-efficacy.
    C) an approach goal. D) a self-fulfilling prophecy.
    D
  42. Which of the following work conditions is NOT likely to increase work motivation and satisfaction? 42) ______
    A) The work feels meaningful and important.
    B) The company has clear and consistent rules.
    C) Tasks are varied rather than repetitive.
    D) The pay level is appropriate for the job.
    D
  43. Which of the following is an example of an approach-approach conflict? 43) ______
    A) You can't decide which of two movies to see.
    B) You can't decide whether or not to get married to the woman you love and give up the single life.
    C) You can't decide whether to vote for Smith or Jones in the upcoming election, neither of whom you like.
    D) You can't decide which answer to this question is correct.
    A
  44. Which of the following is an example of an avoidance-avoidance conflict? 44) ______
    A) You can't decide which answer to this question is correct.
    B) You can't decide which of two movies to see.
    C) You can't decide whether or not to get married to the woman you love and give up the single life.
    D) You can't decide whether to vote for Smith or Jones in the upcoming election, neither of whom you like.
    D
  45. Nari wants to be a stay-at-home mom but worries that she won't be able to return to her career. This illustrates a/n 45) ______
    A) avoidance-avoidance conflict. B) approach-approach conflict.
    C) multiple approach-avoidance conflict. D) approach-avoidance conflict.
    D
  46. Maslow envisioned people's motives as a pyramid. The first needs (the foundation) to be satisfied were 46) ______
    A) social needs. B) survival needs. C) esteem needs. D) security needs.
    B
  47. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, what is the top level of the pyramid? 47) ______
    A) Security needs B) Esteem needs
    C) Self-actualization D) Social needs
    C

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