Active viewers = deeply engaged witha prgram to the point of demonstrating parasocial character identification
Passive viewers = The program is just on and they may or may not be actually physcically watching it.
Ad hoc network = the term is used when a group of TV/radio stations with different affiliations band together to provide synchronous coverage of a program or event. Example=Lions pre-season football coverage
Ad slicks = print promotional materials primarily used as inserts for newspapers and MSO point distribution collateral.
Affiliate = local TV stations that broadcast network programming for viewers.
AQH = Average quarter hour. Time period used to measure ratings. Allows a way to directly compare programs of different lengths that air at the same time. Example half hour sitcom& 3hour FB game.
Arbitron = service used for measuring radio listenership.
Aspect ratio = Measurement of the height and width of a print or visual design. Determines how you design, compose and lay out or shoot something for video or print.
Asynchrounous exhibition = When the same episode of a program is shown at different times of a day or days within the week.
Audience acquisition = strategy for getting someone to actively turn on and tune in a station/program through commercial breaks and on to the imediately following program.
Availabilities (AVAIKS) = Empty/unsold advertising slots that can be filled with on-air promos.
Barriers to entry = Aspects that make it difficult to enter and compete with existing markets. In media, primary barrier = cost for production.
Benchmark research - Benchmark research attempts to determine what the current level or status of something is with the research audience
Branding= Attempting to differentiate a stion or prohram from other stations or programs.
Bug = A small station/channel/network identification mark that generally appears in the lower right hand corner of a TV screen.
Cash plus barter = When the exhibitor pays a reduced amount for permission to air a program in exchange for allowing the syndicator to sell some of the ad space in teh program
Churn = The ratio of how many customers discontinue their cable service compared to the overall number of customers. CHURN is a measure of negative growth.
Clearances = Factors in the nuber of affiliates/markets that will carry a program to estimate the likely rating for a prgram before it airs. Used for sale promotion to convince advertisers to buy time in the program.
Combination promo = Like a multimple promo it promotes 2 or more proghrams. The combo leabes room for the affiliate to insert a plg for a program that takes place directly before or after the network promotion.
Combined identifier = Appending station promotion to legally required station identification announcements.
Conceot research vs Image research = Concept research tests a promotional idea befor it is put in place. Image research examines whta people think about and the feelings they hold for a station.
Congruence vs positiong = Congruence is teh ability to create promotions that are reflective of the network image. Positioning refers to how you determine the market/vieweers who wil be most accepting and most interesting in your promotions as they reflect what they already think/believe.
Consideration= Money or some other thing of value that one needs to contribute to have a chance to win somethin.
Contest vs lottery - Lottery =random chance, a consideration, valuable prize. Contests is the same WITHOUT a consideration
Convergence - Strategizing by traditional media (newspapers, TV & radio) to remain competitive with online and new communication mediums.
Co-op advertising - Local advertising for network programs or news broadcast placed by network affiliates and paid in part by the networks. This is often done during periods around sweeps weeks to help boost ratings.
Cross-channel promotion - Airing promotions for one station or network on another co-owned one. National level - network cable.
Cume = Overall number or listeners for a radio station. Similar to circualtion for a newspaper or magazine.
Daypart - Division of hours in radio and television
Demographic = age gender education level socio economic status Psychographic = personality lifestyle choices, hobbies beliefs.
Diaries = The historic main means for gathering TV/radio usage data. Has viewres physically write down the prgams they watch.
Early fringe = Between 4 and 7
Economies of scale = Acquistion leads to lower prodction costs. EX= a cable MSO acquiring a neighboring one allowing cosolodation of many services like promo departments to save more
External promotion = using means such as purchasing advertising on non-owned networks, billboard signage, newspaper ads to promote the station to non-viewers.
Fall campaigns = historic time for launching a new series
Feature vs benefit - Feature = something a product has or does . Benefit =demonstation of what the product can do for someone.
First-run syndication = Programs that affiliates use to fill their non-network or self-produced prgramming times that have not previously aired on another network . EX Ellen, Inside edition, Wheel of fortune
fixed-position promotion = A slot reserved for promotion in a commercial pod. Strategies of fixed promotions refered to as Primacy and recency .
Formers = Term used by Cable MSOs to note customers who no longer subscribe to their service
Former pays= current cable customers who have cancelled uppertier pay channels like HBO . aka "downgraders"
Generic promotion = protes a series rather than a specific episode
hammocking - a programming strategy in which a new or weaker rated show is placed between two established programs so viewers will be retained trhough to the second stronger show.
Hard seel vs soft sell - Classification of promotion copy tone . Hard sell is muck akin to having someon grab you by the collar and yell Watch this ! soft seel attems to subtly lure you in to watching a program.
Horizontal cross-plug = Placing an on-air promotion on one show wit hthe intent of persuading viewers or listenrs to tune back in at a time on another day
Horizontal recycling = getting viewrs to tune back in on another day
HUT= Homes/houses using television. Used to calculate TV ratings.
Hypoing = Methods of manipulating ratings data.
Imperative information = Time day , network/station
Independent station - Has no affiliation
Insertion device = A piece of equipment that allows MSOs to place local promos and advertisements in network feeds.
Late fringe = The television viewing period between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m.
Learning process viewrs = Decide to watch a specific program and then watch it on TV. Stop watching when show is over... low contrast viewers =first decide to watch TV and then decide what to watch
Line extensions = a technique of creating new networks or programs by using existing networks as a springboard for viewer expectaions (ex ESPN 2)
Low involvement viewrs - decide to watch tv then select what to watch.
MSO = Multiple system operator - local cable providers, primary source for exhibition of cable stations.
Multiple spot - Promo that plugs more than one program. Used to promote an entire evenings primetime lineup
Multiplexing = A program strategy of airing current season episodes of a program multiple times on a network or across sister stations.
Network = group of affiliates or MSOs who engage in synchronous exhibition of programming.
Network ewquity = providing a degreee of network ownership to producers or exhibitors.
Nevers = Cable terminology for people who have never subscribed to cable
Non-diagetic sound - The addition of music sound effects or VO to an existing program or promo .
Nielsen - Service used for mesuring television viewrship
Off network syndication = programs that affiliates use to fill their non-network or self-produced programming times which have previously aired on another network. Ex. Simpsons
O/O station- stations are owned and oerated by a network and take the place of a broadcast affilaite station.
Parasocial character identification - The tendency of some viewers to impose beliefs and expectations upon people they see on Tv or hear on radio
Payola - paying a Dj to play a song
Peoplemeters - electronice devices that measre television radio usage. More accurate than user diaries.
Plugola- paying a dj to endorse a product or service
Pod= commercial breaks
Premier = the first episode of a program or aseason.
Primacy vs recency - Primacy = the placemnt of a promotion in the first slot in a commercial pod. Recency = refers to promotion placement in the last slot before the show comes back on.
Prime access = the hour before primetime. Used for a broadcast affiliates strongest or most expensive syndicated program.
Prime time - The hours of 8-11 p.m in which broadcast networks schedule their strongest shows.
Primary research vs Secondary/sydicated - is data gathered by the person investigating the issue with findings that are appilcable and available to one client. Syndicated - finding tha are available to multiple clients as well as the media.
Produccer/Distrubutor/Exhibitor relationship - Producer - the entity that creates a program/product - Distributor - Organizes and brands programs - Exhibitor - brings the program/ product to viewers/consumers
Push promo - rely on direct contact by an entity trying to sell or market a program/ service/ product to potential customers. (trade magazines)
Pull promotion - Pull promotions attempt to elicit demand for a product or service by encouraging current or potential customers interested in a product or service to approach an exhibitor and ask them to purchase your product.
Qualitative research - Investigations and analysis that answer research questions through the use of focus groups, in-depth interviews, ethonography, and content analysis
Quantitative research - Investigation and anlaysis that answers research questions with numbers and statistics.
Remote - Staging a radio broadcast at an out-of-station location
Repurposing - A programming strategy of using past seasons of off network programs to create a stion image in lieu of creating original programming. ( using old soap operas).
Ritualized viewers - People who are conditioned to wath a certain program or at a certain time, regardless of direct interst in the specific episede. ( Monday night FB)
Sales promotion - Promoting programs to potential advertisers.
Sampling - Encourgaing new viewrs to tune in and watch a proghram . Also the process of statiscally inferring information about a population set through the analysis of a smaller number of its members.
Seamless programming - the programming practice of starting a new program immediately upon the conclusion of a first program.
Shared ID- A graphic image which incoroporates bothe the station and network. (Fox 32)
Shelf space - the way cable MSOs refer to their station lineup and availablility.
Sister stations- Tv or radio stations under the same ownnership
Striaght barter - Sydicator sells a high proportion of the advertising spaces in a program prior to sending it to the exhibitor. In exchange the exhibitor receives a prgram for free.
Straight cash - the exhibitor pays for the rights to run the prgram and the right to sell all the advertisng space with it.
Stripped - A classification for a program that is offered either five or seven days a week at the same time. Such as wheel of fortune at 6 Monday through Fri.
Snype - animated promotion message often accompanied by non-diagetic sound that is overlayed on the screen during a program
Sweeps - A quarter annual periof of market analysis during which time television viewing havits are surveyed.
Synchronous exhibition - The same episiode of a program is hsown at the same time on all stations within a network. ( national sport events)
Tentpolling - A programming strategy in whcih two new or weaker rated shows are placed before and after respectively, an establish or strongly rated show.
Tie- ins - A situation in which a store or product is incorporated within a promotion or program
Topical promotion - A promotion that promtoes a specific episode of a series. ( Dont miss Saturday night live)
Traffic - The department responsible for scheduling and logging programs and advertising at a television or radio station
TSL - Time spent listening. A measuremnt of audience retention for radio.
Turnkey arrangement - A situation in whcih an advertising firm creates ads as well as arranges the media buys for clients.
Unique selling point - A feature that sets a station apart from others.
Vector - Implied movements of force with graphic and visual designs taht are intended to predictably direct viewer eyes to information.
Vertical cross-plug - Placing an on-air promotion on one show with the intent of persuading viewrs or listeners to une back in at a different time during the same day
Vertical integration - A media company owns all three elements - program production distribution and exhibition . COmcast/NBC universal
Vertical recycling - The strategy of getting viewers or listeners to tune back in at a differenttime later in the day
Voiceover - Supplementing promo clips or a still visual with a spoken aural track.
Wordmark - A stylized way of writing a network logo such as with the clasic lifetime and USA