Exam 4 terms.txt

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Exam 4 terms.txt
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  1. Clinical nurse leader (CNL)
    "A master's degree�educated RN who assumes accountability for client care outcomes through the assimilation and application of research-based information to design, implement, and evaluate client plans of care. The CNL is a provider and a manager of care at the point of care to individuals and cohorts or populations. The CNL designs, implements, and evaluates client care by coordinating, delegating, and supervising the care provided by the health care team, including licensed nurses, technicians, and other health professionals (Cherry 2)"
  2. Doctor of nursing practice (DNP)
    A practice focused doctoral degree in nursing. The degree that is recommended by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) for all advanced practice nurses by 2015. (Cherry 2)
  3. Clinical nurse specialist (CNS)
    "An advanced practice nurse who possesses expertise in a defined area of nursing practice for a selected client population or clinical setting. The CNS functions as an expert clinician, educator, consultant, researcher, and administrator. (Cherry 2)"
  4. Florence Nightingale (1820 to 1910)
    "Considered the founder of organized, professional nursing. She is best known for her contributions to the reforms in the British Army Medical Corps, improved sanitation in India, improved public health in Great Britain, use of statistics to document health outcomes, and the development of organized training for nurses."
  5. Professional nurse
    "A specially trained professional that addresses the humanistic and holistic needs of patients, families, and environments and provides responses to patterns and/or needs of patients, families, and communities to actual and potential health problems. The professional nurse has diverse roles, such as health care provider, client advocate, educator, care coordinator, primary care practitioner, and change agent (Cherry 2)"
  6. Art
    "Any branch of creative work, especially painting and drawing, that displays form, beauty, and any unusual perception."
  7. Literature
    All writings in prose or verse.
  8. Media
    "All the means of communication, such as newspapers, radio, and television."
  9. Stereotype
    A fixed or conventional conception of a person or group held by a number of people that allows for no individuality. (Cherry 26)
  10. Competency outcomes
    "The results, or end products, of planned study and experience that are focused on specific abilities required for practice."
  11. Contemporary issues
    "The problems, changes, and concerns that are current for the present time."
  12. Core competencies
    The essential cluster of abilities and skills required for competent nursing practice.
  13. Educational mobility
    "The progressive movement from one type or level of education to another, often based on flexible, self-directed, or advanced placement options. Examples are progression from diploma preparation to an academic degree, such as RN to BSN or MSN; BSN to doctoral degree; or non-nursing degree to BSN, MSN, or doctoral degree."
  14. Education trends
    Shifts in conditions and concerns that emerge from and influence various aspects of society; broad changes in the United States and the world that influence the education and practice of nurses and other providers.
  15. Performance examinations
    "Standardized evaluation based on objective demonstration of specific required competencies; used in conjunction with written tests of knowledge about those abilities. They may require performance in actual or simulated situations, related to physical psychomotor skills or the observable evidence of other skills such as critical thinking, communication, teaching, planning, writing, or analysis and integration of data. (Cherry 42)"
  16. Accreditation
    Voluntary process by which schools of nursing are approved to conduct nursing education programs.
  17. Advanced practice nurse (APN)
    Legal title for nurses prepared by education and competence to perform independent practice.
  18. American Nurses Association (ANA)
    Professional organization that represents all registered nurses.
  19. American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)
    An independent agency of the American Nurses Association that conducts certification examinations and certifies advanced practice nurses.
  20. Certification
    Process by which nurses are recognized for advanced education and competence.
  21. Compact state
    "A term of law. In the context of the Nurse Licensure Compact, a state that has established an agreement with other states allowing nurses to practice within the state without an additional license. The interstate compacts are enacted by the state legislatures."
  22. Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)
    A subsidiary of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) with responsibility for accrediting baccalaureate and higher-degree nursing programs.
  23. Continued competency program
    "A variety of initiatives to ensure nurses knowledge, skills, and expertise beyond initial licensure."
  24. Grandfathered
    Statutory process by which previously licensed persons are included without further action in revisions or additions in nurse practice acts.
  25. International Council of Nursing (ICN)
    Professional organization that represents nurses in countries around the world.
  26. Licensure by endorsement
    The original program whereby nurses licensed in one state seek licensure in another without repeat examinations. The requirements are included in state nurse practice acts or accompanying rules and regulations.
  27. Mandatory continuing education
    Educational requirements imposed by individual states for renewal of a license.
  28. Mutual recognition of nursing
    "Program developed by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (2009c). The Nurse Licensure Compact program establishes interstate compacts so that nurses licensed in one jurisdiction may practice in other compact states without duplicate licensure."
  29. National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)
    Organization whose membership consists of the board of nursing of each state or territory.
  30. National League for Nursing (NLN)
    "Professional organization whose members represent multiple disciplines. The National League for Nursing conducts many types of programs, including accrediting nursing education programs."
  31. Nurse practice act
    Statute in each state and territory that regulates the practice of nursing.
  32. State board of nursing
    Appointed board within each state charged with responsibility to administer the nurse practice act of that state.
  33. Sunset legislation
    Statutes that provide for revocation of laws if not reviewed and renewed within a specified time period. (Cherry 72)
  34. Concept
    "An idea or a general impression. Concepts are the basic ingredients of theory. Examples of nursing concepts include pain, quality of life, health, stress, and adaptation."
  35. Conceptual model
    A group of concepts that are associated because of their relevance to a common theme.
  36. Nursing science
    "The collection and organization of data related to nursing and its associated components. The purpose of this data collection is to provide a body of scientific knowledge, which provides the basis for nursing practice."
  37. Nursing theory
    "The compilation of data that defines, describes, and logically relates information that will explain past nursing phenomena and predict future trends. Theories provide a foundation for developing models or frameworks for nursing practice development."
  38. Proposition
    Statement that proposes the relationship between and among concepts.
  39. Schematic model
    "A diagram or visual representation of concepts, conceptual models, or theory. (Cherry 87)"
  40. acceptance
    Fifth stage of K�bler-Ross's stages of grief and dying. An individual comes to terms with a loss rather than submitting to resignation and hopelessness. (Potter 1177)
  41. actual loss
    "Loss of an object, person, body part or function, or emotion that is overt and easily identifiable. (Potter 1177)"
  42. advance directive
  43. agnostic
    Individual who believes that any ultimate reality is unknown or unknowable. (Potter 1177)
  44. anger
    "Second stage of K�bler-Ross's stages of grief and dying. During this stage an individual resists loss by expressing extreme displeasure, indignation, or hostility. (Potter 1177)"
  45. anticipatory grief
    Grief response in which the person begins the grieving process before an actual loss. (Potter 1178)
  46. atheist
    Individual who does not believe in the existence of God. (Potter 1178)
  47. bargaining
    Third stage of K�bler-Ross's stages of grief and dying. A person postpones the reality of a loss by attempting to make deals in a subtle or overt manner with others or with a higher being. (Potter 1178)
  48. bereavement
    Response to loss through death; a subjective experience that a person suffers after losing a person with whom there has been a significant relationship. (Potter 1178)
  49. complicated grief
  50. connectedness
    "Having close spiritual relationships with oneself, others, and God or another spiritual being. (Potter 1180)"
  51. denial
    Unconscious refusal to admit an unacceptable idea. (Potter 1181)
  52. depression
    (1) A reduction in happiness and well-being that contributes to physical and social limitations and complicates the treatment of concomitant medical conditions. It is usually reversible with treatment. (2) Fourth stage of K�bler-Ross's stages of grief and dying. In this stage the person realizes the full impact and significance of the loss. (Potter 1181)
  53. disenfranchised grief
  54. disorganization and despair
    One of Bowlby's four phases of mourning in which an individual endlessly examines how and why the loss occurred. (Potter 1181)
  55. faith
    "Set of beliefs and a way of relating to self, others, and a supreme being. (Potter 1182)"
  56. grief
    "Form of sorrow involving the person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, occurring as a response to an actual or perceived loss. (Potter 1183)"
  57. holistic
    Of or pertaining to the whole; considering all factors. (Potter 1184)
  58. hope
    "Confident, yet uncertain, expectation of achieving a future goal. (Potter 1184)"
  59. hospice
    System of family-centered care designed to help terminally ill persons be comfortable and maintain a satisfactory lifestyle throughout the terminal phase of their illness. (Potter 1184)
  60. maturational loss
    "Loss, usually of an aspect of self, resulting from the normal changes of growth and development. (Potter 1186)"
  61. mourning
    The process of grieving. (Potter 1186)
  62. necessary losses
    Losses that every person experiences. (Potter 1186)
  63. normal or uncomplicated grief
  64. numbing
    One of Bowlby's four phases of mourning. It is characterized by the lack of feeling or feeling stunned by the loss. May last a few days or many weeks. (Potter 1187)
  65. palliative care
    A level of care that is designed to relieve or reduce intensity of uncomfortable symptoms but not to produce a cure. Palliative care relies on comfort measures and use of alternative therapies to help individuals become more at peace during end of life. (Potter 1187)
  66. perceived loss
    "Loss that is less obvious to the individual experiencing it. Although easily overlooked or misunderstood, a perceived loss results in the same grief process as an actual loss. (Potter 1188)"
  67. postmortem care
    Care of a patient's body after death. (Potter 1188)
  68. reminiscence
    Recalling the past for the purpose of assigning new meaning to past experiences. (Potter 1190)
  69. reorganization
    "The last phase Bowlby's phases of mourning. During this phase, which sometimes requires a year or more, the person begins to accept unaccustomed roles, acquire new skills, and build new relationships. (Potter 1190)"
  70. self-transcendence
    "An awareness of that which cannot be seen or known in ordinary, physical ways. (Potter 1190)"
  71. situational loss
    "Loss of a person, thing, or quality resulting from a change in a life situation, including changes related to illness, body image, environment, and death. (Potter 1191)"
  72. spiritual distress
    "State of being out of harmony with a system of beliefs, a supreme being, or God. (Potter 1191)"
  73. spiritual well-being
    "Individual's spirituality that enables a person to love, have faith and hope, seek meaning in life, and nurture relationships with others. (Potter 1191)"
  74. spirituality
    "Spiritual dimension of a person, including the relationship with humanity, nature, and a supreme being. (Potter 1191)"
  75. yearning and searching
    The second phase of Bowlby's phases of mourning. It is characterized by emotional outbursts of tearful sobbing and acute distress. (Potter 1192)
  76. Bowlby's four phases of mourning
    "Numbing, Yearning and searching, Disorganization and despair, & Reorganization"
  77. K�bler-Ross's stages of grief and dying
    "Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, & Acceptance"
  78. "Worden,s four tasks of mourning"
    "Accepting the reality of loss, Working through the pain of grief, Adjusting to the environment without the deceased, & Emotionally relocating the deceased and moving on with life"
  79. Rando's process model
    "Recognize and accept the reality of the loss; React to, experience, and express the pain of separation; Reminiscence; Relinquish old attachments; & Readjust and Reinvest"
  80. Erythrocytes
    Another name for red blood cells (RBCs). (p. 854)
  81. Erythropoiesis
    The process of erythrocyte production. (p. 854)
  82. Globin
    "The protein part of the hemoglobin molecule (see later); the four different structural globin chains most often found in adults are the alpha1, alpha2, beta1, and beta2 chains. (p. 855)"
  83. Hematopoiesis
    The normal formation and development of all blood cell types in the bone marrow. (p. 854)
  84. Heme
    "Part of the hemoglobin molecule; a nonprotein, iron-containing pigment. (p. 855)"
  85. Hemoglobin
    A complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs. (p. 855)
  86. Hemolytic anemias
    Anemias resulting from excessive destruction of erythrocytes. (p. 856)
  87. Hypochromic
    Pertaining to less than normal color. The term usually describes an RBC with decreased hemoglobin content and helps further characterize anemias associated with reduced synthesis of hemoglobin. (p. 855)
  88. Microcytic
    Pertaining to or characterized by smaller than normal cells. (p. 855)
  89. Pernicious anemia
    A type of megaloblastic anemia usually seen in older adults and caused by impaired intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) due to lack of availability of intrinsic factor. (p. 856)
  90. Reticulocytes
    An immature erythrocyte characterized by a meshlike pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus. (p. 854)
  91. Spherocytes
    "Small, globular, completely hemoglobinated erythrocytes without the usual central concavity or pallor. (al 854)"
  92. bacteremia
    Bacteria in bladder urine (Potter 950)
  93. bacteriuria
    Presence of bacteria in the urine. (Potter 1178)
  94. cathartics
    Drugs that act to promote bowel evacuation. (Potter 1179)
  95. catheterization
    Introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to inject or remove fluid. (Potter 1179)
  96. chyme
    "a semifluid material, mixes with digestive juices (Potter 989)"
  97. colon
    Portion of the large intestine from the cecum to the rectum. (Potter 1179-1180)
  98. constipation
    Condition characterized by difficulty in passing stool or an infrequent passage of hard stool. (Potter 1180)
  99. defecation
    Passage of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum. (Potter 1181)
  100. diarrhea
    "Increase in the number of stools and the passage of liquid, unformed feces. (Potter 1181)"
  101. dysuria
    Painful urination resulting from bacterial infection of the bladder and obstructive conditions of the urethra. (Potter 1182)
  102. enema
    Procedure involving introduction of a solution into the rectum for cleansing or therapeutic purposes. (Potter 1182)
  103. fecal impaction
    Accumulation of hardened fecal material in the rectum or sigmoid colon. (Potter 1182-1183)
  104. fecal incontinence
    Inability to control passage of feces and gas from the anus. (Potter 1183)
  105. fecal occult blood test (FOBT)
    Measures microscopic amounts of blood in the feces. (Potter 1183)
  106. feces
    Waste or excrement from the gastrointestinal tract. (Potter 1183)
  107. flatus
    Intestinal gas. (Potter 1183)
  108. graduated measuring container
    Receptacle for volume measurement. (Potter 1183)
  109. hematuria
    Abnormal presence of blood in the urine. (Potter 1184)
  110. hemorrhoids
    Permanent dilation and engorgement of veins within the lining of the rectum. (Potter 1184)
  111. laxatives
    Drugs that act to promote bowel evacuation. (Potter 1185)
  112. melena
    "Abnormal black, sticky stool containing digested blood, indicative of gastrointestinal bleeding. (Potter 1186)"
  113. micturition
    Urination; act of passing or expelling urine voluntarily through the urethra. (Potter 1186)
  114. ostomy
    Surgical procedure in which an opening is made into the abdominal wall to allow the passage of intestinal contents from the bowel (colostomy) or urine from the bladder (urostomy). (Potter 1187)
  115. peristalsis
    Rhythmical contractions of the intestine that propel gastric contents through the length of the gastrointestinal tract. (Potter 1188)
  116. proteinuria
    "Presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin. Persistent proteinuria is usually a sign of renal disease or renal complications of another disease, or hypertension or heart failure. (Potter 1189)"
  117. residual urine
    Volume of urine remaining in the bladder after a normal voiding; the bladder normally is almost completely empty after micturition. (Potter 1190)
  118. segmentation
    Alternating contraction and relaxation of gastrointestinal mucosa. (Potter 1190)
  119. stoma
    "Artificially created opening between a body cavity and the body's surface; for example, a colostomy, formed from a portion of the colon pulled through the abdominal wall. (Potter 1191)"
  120. suprapubic catheter
    Catheter surgically inserted through abdomen into bladder. (Potter 1191)
  121. ureterostomy
    Diversion of urine away from a diseased or defective bladder through an artificial opening in the skin. (Potter 1192)
  122. urinal
    Receptacle for collecting urine. (Potter 1192)
  123. urinary diversion
    "Surgical diversion of the drainage of urine, such as a ureterostomy. (Potter 1192)"
  124. urinary incontinence (UI)
    Inability to control urination. (Potter 1192)
  125. urinary reflux
    "Abnormal, backward flow of urine. (Potter 1192)"
  126. urinary retention
    Retention of urine in the bladder; condition frequently caused by a temporary loss of muscle function. (Potter 1192)
  127. urine hat
    Receptacle for collecting urine that fits toilet. (Potter 1192)
  128. urometer
    Device for measuring frequent and small amounts of urine from an indwelling urinary catheter system. (Potter 1192)
  129. urosepsis
    Organisms in the bloodstream. (Potter 1192)
  130. Valsalva maneuver
    "Any forced expiratory effort against a closed airway, such as when an individual holds the breath and tightens the muscles in a concerted, strenuous effort to move a heavy object or to change positions in bed. (Potter 1192)"
  131. voiding
    The process of urinating. (Potter 1192)

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