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Sears 3 sections of persuasion throughout history?
- 1. Propaganda
- 2. Minimal effects
- 3. Renewed respect for media effects: long effects
(Sears) Minimal Effects: 2 factors of persuasive
- 1. Reception
- 2. Acceptance
(Sears) 2 forms of selective exposure
- 1. De Facto Selectivity: most audiences are composed of people who already agree with the message
- 2. Motivated Selectivity: individuals psychological preferences for supportive rather than nonsupportive information
(Sears) main obstacle in political persuasion is...
low audience attention and interest
(Sears) Selective receptivity
people avoid, distort and forget communications that challenge their preexisting attitudes. However, this wasn’t true because people dealt with opposing info by denouncing it rather than avoiding it.
(Sears) How do candidates counteract loss of attention?
By saturating the airwaves close to election time.
What are three limitations to experiements (MP)?
- Mundane Realism: The environment isn’t real. Scientists have moved to field experiments as another option. Building realism into experiments fosters loss of control
- Sampling Bias: Subject pool may be biased. Now, internet has been used as an alternative.
- Self-Selection: What the audiences chooses to watch on their own time is different than what the experimenter gives them to watch.
One disadvantage of surveys and one of experiments? (MP)
Surveys fail to reveal the true relationships between cause and effect and they are self reported.
Experiments are not as generalizable to the public as surveys are.
Do political campaigns matter: 2 views? (MP)
- Minimalist view: the political and economic context in which elections occur is just as important as anything the candidates themselves might do or say. Evidence shows results can be predicted with approval ratings and GDP.
- The campaign industry suggests that well executed campaigns can produce significant increase in support. Growing evidence supports campaign effects existence.
Do campaigns matter: middle ground answer: (MP)
Every election is set in a different context, and candidate’s change/adapt their campaign design to match accordingly.
What does MP say the two largest problems of American media are?
- 1. the absence of a substantive or policy-oriented electoral forum
- 2. the substitution of journalists and analysts for the candidates as the principal voices in the news
To deal with the problem of inadequate sustance, what does the MP offer as a solution?
- 1. return to the public-service model of broadcast media
- 2. a system of monitoring news organizations for the substantive content of their programming
- 3. Provide candidates free air time
- 4. Return to a more partisan press
what's the most glaring weakness of modern media based campaigns? (MP)
the invisibility of policy issues
2 factors that hinder US in strengthening public broadcasting (MP)
- 1. gov funding
- 2. deregulation
(MP) how will communications between voters and candidates change?
Instead of TV advertising, politicians will use mediums such as facebook pages or tweets to highlight recent accomplishments--online townhall meetings. Thus, bypassing the news media.
When does negativity effect turnout and voters? (Krupnikov)
- 1. IF a person is exposed to negativity after selecting a preferred candidate
- 2. the negativity is about this selected candidate
An individual's decision process has two parts (Krupnikov):
- 1. selection (negativity can be crucial in this process)
- 2. action
What are the two most often used indicators to predict presidential campaign outcome? (MP)
- 1. Approval ratings
- 2. Economy (reelect incumbant if economy is growing)
What's the primary effect of campaigns?
What's a task of campaigns (MP)?
- To attract swing voters.
- Independent voters are easily swayed by image and issue oriented appeals.
Do campaigns have any educational impact? (MP)
Yes. There is some info on background and positions of candidates
Why do primaries represent a special case of campaign effects? (MP)
- Because voters can rely on party identification
- Therefore voters fall back on viability. But sometimes voters choose capability over integrity (i.e. Clinton).
(MP) Campaigns effect the rate
of voter turnout.
(WAHM) What is the hostile media effect?
People, regardless of the media's position, perceive media as biased against their own preexisting opinions, regardless of reality.
(WAHM) Sources of antipathy toward the media?
- 1. Consumption of negative and cynical political coverage
- 2. Consuming news about the 'game' of politics rather than the policy
- 3. Consuming tabloid style news
(WAHM) What does LADD say the two most likely sources of the public's increasing antipathy toward the media are?
- 1. tabloid style coverage (larger among Democrats)
- 2. elite opinion leadership
What does prior hypothesize?
the vast choice of entertainment and politics widens the knowledge gap and turnout.
What becomes a powerful predictor of turnout once people obtain access to new media? Says who
What does Prior say people may start having to rely on if people's preferences continue to rank news as last?
How is Prior's study run?
He designs a News & Entertainment Survey and asks people to rank their top choices of tv genres.
What is the main hypothesis of Shaw?
interaction between events and the favorability of news media coverage drives much of the change in voters' preferences.
What does Shaw's study provide support for?
The minimal effects debate
Main question in Lau?
Can we find any evidence that the tone of Senate election campaign has any significant effect on turnout?
Lau looks at three things:
- 1. Negative campaigning will influence turnout
- 2. Demobilizing might be strong in independents
- 3. Examine Kahn/Kennedy's research that tone of campaign has a positive effect on turnout, but mudslinging has a negative effect
Lau found in aggregate data that:
- 1. negative campaigns have a mobilizing effect in high-intensity campaigns
- 2. states w. many independents, much negative campaigning, voters are more likely to avoid voting
- 3. campaign intensity plays a role in encouraging turnout
- 4. Partisans are stimulated by negative campaigns while independents are more often turned off
Lau found in survey data:
- 1. party ID, intensity, exposure have mobilizing effects
- 2. He found no significant effects for campaign tone to partisan voters
- 3. The tone of the campaign doesn't effect turnout--no evdience for Kahn/Kennedy
Lau says negative campaigning itself doesn't...
demobilize the electorate--at least in the Senate election campaigns
Lau's findings on Political Efficacy and Trust in GOV
- 1. among partisans, negative campaigning has no effect on levels of political efficacy.
- 2. Among independents, it does have neg effect on efficacy.
- 3. No evidence that negative campaigns lower trust in gov.
What is "Going Public"?
- strategy used by presidents and other politicians to promote their policies by appealing to the American public for support.
- If a president enjoys strong public support, that popularity creates an important bargaining advantage.”
- style of government since the 80s
- Most obvious when sitting president uses his popularity against opposite party Congress. Obama has used this most often to convince his own party to do stuff.
What is logrolling?
You vote for my bill and (even though I really don’t want to) I’ll vote for yours
What is Pork barrel spending?
the appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district
Three bargaining strategies in presidential elections:
- 1. Logrolling
- 2. Pork barrel spending
- 3. Compromise: moderate outcomes
When does bargaining work best?
High salience and low information: Iraq War
What determines popularity?
- 1. Time in office
- 2. Historical events
- 3. Manufacturing popularity (issue ownership)
How can the President manufacture popularity?
- 1. attracts news coverage
- 2. make speeches--narrowcasting, going public, locally
- 3. hold press conferences (often too risky)
Consequences of "going public"
- 1. prevents tradeoffs (eliminates logrolling)
- 2. no benefits for compliance, high costs for non-compliance
- 3. public posturing eliminates alternatives
- 4. undermines legitimacy of congress
Policy implications of going public?
- 1. mandates built on sand (get things passed due to current popularity i.e. health form)
- 2. unsound policy (popular but ineffective"read my lips")
- 3. Poll driven policy-making (9/11)
How do you choose categories in content analysis?
- 1. A Priori method (decide in advance what you will look for) manifest: literal/latent: inferred
- 2. Contextual method (inductive)
What is LeBon's mental unity of crowds? (Propaganda scares/massive impact fears)
- Anonymity: loosens civic restriction over base instinct
- Contagion of feelings and actions
- Unconscious persausion and suggestability
Hypodermic model: what is it?
Based on what three assumptions
- Rooted in behaviorism (Classical conditioning)
- 1. Propaganda persuades via repetition and control
- 2. Success depends on quality of message
- 3. Audience is captive and helpless to resist
What are 4 things campaigns do?
- 1. Set the issue agenda
- 2. Inform voters about candidates
- 3. Activate and reinfoce predispositions
- 4. Frame issues
4 reasons American's are politically uninformed
- 1. Geographical ignorance: we're not near any other countires
- 2. No need for facts, just heuristics
- 3. Remember valence, not detail (feelings)
- 4. American news is vacuous
4 things people learn from political advertising
- 1. Name recognition
- 2. Candidate issue positions
- 3. Debates most informative for most informed
- 4. Issue opinionation
How do people think about politics?
- 1. Minimize efforts with shortcuts :schemas
- 2. Accessibility: schemas at top of head. Chronic v. temp (frequently or recently)
What two audience factors moderate agenda setting?
- 1. Political awareness
- 2. personal relevence
Two message factors that moderate agenda setting
- 1. Plausability
- 2. Prominence
What's the most simple demonstration of framing effects?
- Equivalency frame effect
- The Program A and Program B adoption plan and it's the same amount of people that will day but the description is framed differently.
The problem takes the form of a concrete, event-oriented report.
Coverage is based on abstract, general, societal level factors
Emphasis framing effects: Altering substantive considerations two ways
- Attribution theory: assign causes (Romney lost because of Hurricane Sandy)
- Responsibility: Whose fault is it
By calling attention to some matters while ignoring others, television news influences the standards by which governments, presidents, policies, and candidates for public office are judged
2 factors that moderate priming
- 1. how broad is the effect?
- 2. who is most influenced? (partisans/highly knowledgable, trusting of media people are most susceptable)
One of the largest documented effects of political campaigns is:
Reinforcement: bringing voters’ candidate preferences tin line with their party identification
Going Public rests on which of the following axioms?
The more popular the president, the greater his power in Washington
During the height of the Gulf War in 1991, President George H. W. Bush’s popularity exceeded 90 percent. But he lost the election in 1992. The standard explanation is:
Priming effects: § When we think about how a judgement about a situation/candidate has changed, that is a priming effect
In comparing the “persuadability” of more and less politically aware people, which of the following holds
They are equally unaffected by persuasive message, but for different reasons.
What are the 3 steps in Hovland's message learning theory?
- 1. Exposure
- 2. Reception
- 3. Acceptance
- (turns into a many step process)
What determines the route we use in ELM model of learning?
- 1. Self relevance
- 2. Source credibility
- 3. Group stereotypes
- 4. Ability
Assumptions of the Zaller model?
- Reception axiom – Increases in awareness lead to increases in reception.
- Acceptance axiom – Increases in awareness lead to decreases in acceptance
- 1. Reason: dominates all other needs
- 2. Emotion
- 3. Bodily needs
Aristotle: 3 means of persuasion
- 1. Ethos-credibility
- 2. Logos-logic
- 3. Pathos-emotion
Is there conflict between emotion and reason?
NO! Rationality requires emotion.
- Enthusiasm mobilizes, anxiety reduces reliance
- on habits of minds.
- Fear leads to persuasion.
- We also find ANGER mobilizes powerfully
- DISGUST and SADNESS may demobilize.
- The particular emotion matters.
2 things to be good citizens
- 1. access to information
- 2. quality informaiton
(IVEN) What are unintended consequences of reforming campaign fincance?
- 1. Longer campaigns
- 2. Weaken parties
- 3. Disadvantage challengers
- 4. Destroy public financing system
(IVEN) Problems with reforming structure by shortening campaign?
- These reforms generally advantage incumbents and insiders (wealthy candidates, etc.)
- It takes a while to build name recognition
- Perks of office make it easier to run
(LADD) Media help facilitate 2 essential democratic functions
- 1. Help activists organize party coalitions so policy making less prone to instability and agenda manipulation
- 2. Publicize policy outcomes, so disengaged voters can hold politicians accountable
(LADD) 2 reforms
- US gov enhance public broadcasting
- Gov could directly publicize a national condidtions report (like a report card, bypassing the media)