Bio aging final review discussion papers.txt

Card Set Information

Bio aging final review discussion papers.txt
2012-12-08 18:21:49
bio aging Final exam discussion papers

bio of aging Final exam discussion papers and hydroxyl radical structures
Show Answers:

  1. Minogue and Thomas
    • High doses of Vitamin E increaased maximum lifespan of Paramecium
    • increase in fission rates observed
  2. Navarro et al.
    • Increasing Vit E in MICE: increase in lifespan by 40% of MALE mice
    • Only 14% increase in FEMALES :(
  3. Bezlepkin, Sirota, Gaziev
    Mice given antioxidant mixture (AM) as daily supplementation showed INCREASE in survival and decrease in mortality vs control
  4. Yan, Shijun, Xiaohong and Oberley
    • looked @ Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (premature aging disease)
    • Examined free radicals, Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
    • 1. Superoxide radical: O2-
    • 2. Hydrogen peroxide: H202
    • 3. Hydroxyl radical: OH
    • To defend against ROS, antioxidant enzymes (AE) act, include:
    • 1. superoxide dismutase (SOD), containing copper, zinc or manganese
    • 2. catalase (CAT)
    • 3. glutathione peroxidase (GPX)
    • RESULTS: in progeria cells, there were altered levels of AE and diminished H202 removing capacity, which plays important role in progeria
  5. Orr & Sohal
    • Showed Strongest evidence of free radical mech. of aging
    • Drosophila with extra gene copies of Antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase: showed significant INCREASE in longevity and survivorship vs. controls
    • Prob set #9
  6. Bodner, Ouellete, White, et al.
    • Showed TELOMERASE was a key enzyme in regulation of lifespan of DIPLOID FIBROBLASTS
    • Introduced active copy of gene for telomerase: showed increase in length of telomeres and NO slowing down of division rates
  7. Bergmann, Gilliland, …Alverdy
    • Sleep deprivation in rats lead to increase in temp, then decrease in body temp which then led to INCREASE in aerobic bacterial invasion
    • Increase in T3 & T4 hormones during sleeplessness to increase metabolism, leaking ATP and causing rise in temp
    • sleep deprivation through DISK-OVER-H20 method
  8. Russel J. Reiter
    • Studied the pineal gland and melatonin
    • Showed Antioxidant activity in H20 that has NOT been photo-oxidized (exposed to light) RETAINS its Antioxidant properties
    • Mice that drank from the 'dark' H20 had INCREASE in lifespan vs control mice who drank normal H20 exposed to light
  9. Steven Lehrer
    • Showed 1st evidence for INCREASE in longevity of retrolental fibroplasia (completely blind) individuals vs. partially blind ind. who can see light and dark, but not clear vision.
    • This increase in longevity is due to increase in melatonin
  10. Thomas and Smith-Sonneborn
    • Supplementation of melatonin showed INCREASE in longevity of Paramecium
    • Showed increase in fissions, Highest recorded in literature
  11. Gilley and Blackburn
    • Showed TELOMERE shortening is mechanism in aging of Paramecium
    • Done by showing SHORTENING of chromosomal FRAGments
    • Antioxidants can DELAY fragmentation of the fragments
  12. Lal, Ramsey, Monemdjou, WEINDRUCH, Harper
    • Free Radical damage causing HIGH mortality rates in aging rats (skeletal muscle cells) via. INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE
    • The mitochondrial membrane damage leads to it being more LEAKY to protons so has to do more work, but in tern produce MORE free radicals, therefore making more damage for mit. membrane
  13. Coleman, Anderson, Weindruch et al
    Calorie restriction with rhesus monkeys @ 30 years showed Decrease mortality rate vs. control fed monkeys
  14. Austad SN
    • Looked at aging in vertebrates (mole rats) and invertebrates (spiders): showed animals spending more time SHIELDED from sunlight have INCREASED longevity
    • Possibly due to increase in melatonin in the animals with less light exposure
  15. Robert White, Wolin, Massopust, Taslitz and Verdura
    Argues for future improvements in longevity of humans via. human head transplantation (as done with rhesus monkeys)
  16. Peter Medawar
    • Argues for increasing longevity of humans as a positive and desirable outcome
    • Consistent with the practicies involved in modern medicine
  17. Massie et al.
    Moderate Vit. A supplementation: increased longevity in Dros. vs low Vit A or overdose of Vit. A
  18. :O::O:
    diatomic oxygen
  19. .O:O:-
    superoxide FREE RADICAL
  20. H:O:O:H
    hydrogen peroxide
  21. H:O:-
    hydroxide ion
  22. H:O.
    Hydroxyl free radical
  23. H:O:H