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function of respiratory system
- transport and exchange of gasses
- phonation (talking)
- heat regulation
Parts of upper respiratory tract
- nasal passages
parts of lower respiratory tract
- alveolar ducts
- external opening that is the beginning of the respiratory system. Associated with cartilage (gives outer appearance) and the nasal cavity.
- Contains nostrils and philtrum (deep in carnivore and shallow in pig/horse/ruminant).
bony nasal aperture
rostral end of nasal and incisive bones. "immovable" nose. Cartilage extends rostrally from it.
only in pigs, used for rooting. Right at the beginning of the nasal cavity
- external nares to choanae (caudal nares).
- Three parts: Vestibule, middle, caudal. Septum divides the three parts, and into right and left. (vomer, nasal, ethmoid), membrane and cartilege.
- nasal turbinates. Fill nasal cavity. Scroll-shaped bones covered in mucous membranes.
- Dorsal (ethmoid bone) and ventral. Stop stuff from getting into lungs.
Spaces surrounded by conchi. Dorsal nasal meatus, middle nasal meatus, common nasal meatus, ventral nasal meatus
nostril to ventral nasal conchi that forms part of false nostril in horse. Folded over part a the outside of the nostril in dogs. Alar cartilage (supports rim on nostrils) is part of the nasal diverticulum or false nostril in horses.
false nostril in horses, made up of alar cartilege.
opening dorsal to soft palate. Caudal nares to laryngopharynx. Near eustachian tube. Contains gutteral pouch.
a large air-filled ventral diverticulum (empty space) of the auditory tube in the horse/ Side of neck and face, between cranium and wings of atlas
paranasal sinuses, dog and horse
- air-filled cavities within some skull bones. Communicate with nasal cavity.
- Dog: maxillary recess (lateral/medial/rostral frontal)
- Horse: Frontal, caudal maxillary (frontal bone), cranial maxillary (rostral area).
- Gatekeeper to the entrance of the trachea. Connection of pharynx and trachea. Suspended by hyoid apparatus, regulates the size of airway and protects trachea during swallowing. Includes vocal cords.
- 4 parts: epiglottus, arytenoids, cricoid, thyroid cartilage
Parts of the larynx (4)
- Epiglottis: front. Flips to cover glottis
- Arytenoids: middle. Paired. Sit inside cricoid and provide attachment for vocal cords.
- Cricoid: back. Caudal to thyroid, shaped like a signet ring
- Thyroid cartilage: rostral. Adam's apple. Sides and floor.
Intrinsic muscle of larynx
- dorsal cricoarytenoid. Opens/abducts vocal folds
- (also cricothyroideus, ventricularis, vocalis, cricoarytenoideus lateralis)
slit-like gap in vocal cords, Open or shut (arytenoid cartilege). Mucosa. Mall opening for resting respiration. More open for exercise.
breathing vs swallowing
push up base of tongue and soft palate to swallow to interrupt breath and avoid aspiration pneumonia (when you swallow stuff)
- larynx to main bronchi. Enters mediastinum at thoracic inlet, bifurcates dorsal to heart. In thorax, goes right to avoid aortic arch.
- Contains annular ligament, tracheal rings and tracheallis muscle
Larynx is made up of
- annular ligament: makes the rings into a tube (flexible to move with the neck)
- Tracheal rings: C-shape cartilege to add support and rigidity and keep from collapse.
- Trachealis muscle: completes dorsal part of ring. Smooth muscle, tone determines the diameter of trachea. Ciliated columnar epithelium. Cilia beat upwardbring up particles and mucus to esophagus
- diverticulum of the trachea. Head into each lung, split into smaller and smaller pieces.
- secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles (no rings), respiratory bronchiole has alveoli in alveolar sac in walls, involved in gas exchange. Terminal.
- a serous lining of the thoracic cavity and the thoracic organs forming two pleural sacs on either side of the mediastinum.
- Balloons in chest cavity, mediastinum in between, where heart is. Lumgs push into sack.
- Visceral and parietal.
between pleural cavities. Where heart is.
usually the lung is a vacuum. If you cut a hole, it equalizes and the lung collapses.
- paired organ of respiration. Apex cranial, base caudal by diaphragm. Right is bigger than left in cat and dog. Divide into lobes, including bronchi, nerves, vessels, etc. Spongy, elastic and free except where attched to mediastinum.
- Equine is smooth, porcine is lobulated.
- Lobes: Left cranial (cranial and caudal portions), left caudal, right cranial, right middle, right caudal, right accessory.
Pulmonary arteries/veins vs. bronchial artery
Pulmonary arteries are just involved in gas exchange. Bronchial artery comes off the aorta to support the lungs.
listen with a stethoscope. Should be quiet to inaudible at rest, louder over trachea. Rustling leaves are normal.
Abnormal lung sounds.
- Rattles or explosive sounds: sudden opening of airway or popping bubbles. Pneumonia, pulmonary edema.
- Continuous wheezes (rales): air pushing through narrowed airways. Spasms, neoplasia, foreign body, lymph too large, stenosis of larynx
Upper and lower urinary tract
- Upper: kidneys, ureters
- lower: bladder, urethra
- functional organ of urinary system that filter blood and produce urine. Retroperitoneal (between parietal peritoneum and body wall).
- Right is more cranial, embedded in caudate lobe of liver (except in pig, where they're even).
- In a large dog, 200-300L of blood filtered per day, 1-2 eliminated.
- Normally red-brown.
function of kidney
- excretion of urea
- maintenance of water balance
- filter all the blood in the body
- control the concentration of salt ions (excrete or retain)
- control pH (one of three systems that gets rid of extra H+ ions)
Species differences in kidney
- most small animals (and the left on a horse): bean shaped
- Ox: lobulated, cobblestones.
- Horse right: heart shaped and smooth.
Parts of the kidney
- capsule surrounds/encases
- Cortex: outer layer beneath capsule. Lighter color and granular. Most nephrons (glomerulus)
- Medulla (at corticomedullary junction: middle part. Loops of henle maintain concentration gradient inside
- Renal Pelvis: where urine collects and goes out ureter.
how the medulla and cortes are arranged inside. cat/dog have 1 lobe, cow has multiple separated, pig has multiple connected.
part of medulla pushing down toward renal pelvis
the lobes, directed towards renal pelvis
in the carnivore kidney. 1 lobe or papilla.
- cup-shaped structure that recieves urine from individual papillae. Minor enters into major, major drops directly into ureter, skipping the renal pelvis.
- Consist of minor and major calyx.
- medial aspect. Concave portion. Entrance and exit.
- In: renal arteries and lymph
- Out: ureters, veins
- Functional unit of the kidney. Each has its own arteriole to supply.
- Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, convoluted tubules, loop of henle, collecting tubule/duct to papillary duct then ureter. Loop of henle and collecting tubule are in medulla.
- Pressure of blood makes waste/gasses cross membrane into bowman's capsules. Tubules become urine.
- Surrounded by capillary network where materials are reabsorbed into the blood.
- enters bladder at neck to prevent urine from going backwards (genital fold in males, broad ligament in females).
- 3 layers: fibrous, muscle (smooth detrusor--peristalsis), submucosa, inner mucosa. Transitional epithelium to stretch and expand.
- Rugae like the stomach when empty.
- distensible pouch receiving and storing urine from the kidneys for release out the urethra. Supsended by round ligament, a vestige of umbilical artery.
- Consists of apex (top), body (center pouch), Trigone (triangle where ureters enter and urethra exits), neck (base)
- Parasympathetic controls detrusor muscle. Pudendal sensory.
- exit out of bladder to outside of body. Ends in internal urethral sphincter. Relaxed by autonomic control.
- Tube transporting urine through vestibule.
- exit out of bladder to outside of body. Ends in internal urethral sphincter. Relaxed by autonomic control.
- common passageway for sperm and urine.
- Pelvic urethra passes from neck of bladder to pelvic inlet, through prostate.
- Penile urethra is when it's in spongy erectile tissue.
- Colliculus seminalis and defernt duct pass through abdominal wall and join urethra.
skeletal muscle covering lateral and ventral sides of the pelvic urethra. True sphincter under voluntary control, innervated by pudendal nerve.
Epithelium of urinary system
- The renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra are all lined by transitional epithelium.
- It changes to stratified squamous epithelium at or near the urethral orifice (tip of the penis or junction with the vestibule of the vagina)
Usually 95% water, urea, salts (mostly sodium chloride) and pigements (mostly bile).
Glucose in urine
RBC in urine. Inflammation of kidneys or urinary tract, cancer or a blow to the kidneys
RBCs in blood have hemolyzed (membrane broken down) and hemoglobin in the kidney tubules.
WBC in urine
infection of kidneys or urinary tract
Protein in urine
- usually too large for kidney tubule. Little to no albumin is normal. Lots of albumin isn't.
- Kidney tubules injured, kidney diseased or high blood pressure pushing protein through tubules.
casts in urine
tiny cylenders of material shed from the lining of the tubules. Can be RBC, WBC, granular, whatever the shape of the tubule.
Mucus in urine
not in most animals, but normal in horse (cloudy urine)
- tubes with dense fat and connective tissue from aorta/VC to ovaries. Have arteries and veins. Break and suture in a spay.
- Connects ovary to body wall. Cats don't have.
- produces hormones and secretions
- affected by aging
- females accept males around ovulation.
Ovulation, estrus, heat
- breeding takes place only during a definite period in cycle
- heat period estrus is when female is receptive
- physical and behavioral changes (window of opportunity)
- seasonal, at intervals or annual.
Which animals are polyestrous?
cattle and swine. On continuous cycle throughout year. When one ends, another starts
What animals are seasonally polyestrous?
Horse, sheep and cat. Go into "season". Seasonal variations. Cycle continuously only at specific times of the year, none at others.
which animals are diestrous?
dogs. 2 cycles per year, usually in spring and fall.
which animals are monoestrous
foxes and minks. 1 cycle per year.
wholly dependant on parents. Dogs.
independant from birth. Fully functional. Horses.
give birth to one offspring. Cattle, horses and humans.
give birth to multiple offspring. Litters. Pigs, dogs, cats.
- female gonads. Solid, ellipsoidal, no relation to body size. Suspended from body wall by mesovarium (part of broad suspensory ligament). Cranial-most part of the system, in dorsal abdomen near the kidneys.
- Function: production of reproductive cells. Production of hormones.
Broad ovarian ligament
- Mesovarium: ovary to body wall
- Mesometrium: uterine body and horns to body wall
- mesosalpinx: fallopian tube in hammock
protrusion from the body of the ovary containing one ovum. Changes size depending on part of cycle. Palpable in horse and cow. Ovulation is release from follicle into oviduct.
- Different hormones are produced depending on stage of cycle.
- Estrogen: prepare animal for breeding.
- Progesterone: corpus luteum (empty follicle after ovulation). Maintinence of pregnancy, preparation of uterus. Acts with estrogen for receptivity in some species.
AKA oviduct or fallopian tubes. The duct running between the layers of the mesosalpinx to the tip of the uterine horn. Conducts ova to uterus and sperm to ovary. Site of fertilization.
the expanded, funnel-shaped oarian end of the uterine tubes. Have fibriae (fingers that guide eggs into the funnel)
The highly expandable tubular organ where they embryo/fetus develops. Bicornate (2 horns) in most domestics.
constricted caudal portion of uterus joining uterus to vagina. In pelvic cavity. Cervix-sphincter controls access to uterus. Opens at estrus for entrance of sperazoa. Opens at parturition for exit of fetus.
cranioventral recess formed by the cervix bulging into the vagina in the mare and bitch.
Three layers of uterus
- Endometrium: simple columnar epithelium, simple tubular glands secrete mucus
- Myometrium: layer of smooth muscle for pushing fetus out
- Perimetrium: outer-most layer, covered by visceral layer of peritoneum
part of broad ligament connecting ovary to body wall
part of broad ligament connecting uterine tube between its two layers
uterine horns and uterine body to abdominal wall
from cervix to where urethra enters. Tube that receives penis and acts as birthing canal. Ventral to rectum, dorsal to bladder. Retroperitoneal. Mucosa, muscle and smooth outer lining.
urethral orifice to vulva. Has reproductive and urinary functions. Connects vagina to vulva. Caudal to ischial arch, goes ventral toward vulva.
External urethral orifice
urethral opening at the vaginoestibular junction. Opens on a papilla the urethral tubercle, in the carnivores.
- terminates the genital tract.
- Contins clitoris (homologues of penis),
- labia (right and left lips of the vulva),
- vulvar cleft (opening between labia leading into vestibule)
Blood supply to female reproductive (6)
- Ovarian artery: off abdominal aorta supplies gonads
- Internal pudendal: terminates as artery of clitoris
- Vaginal artery: comes off internal pudendal or internal iliac. Supplies urogenital organs in pelvic cavity
- Uterine artery: main blood supply of uterus. Species differences
- Umbilical artery: internal iliac or internal pudendal (horse) and goes to apex of bladder
- Caudal system: internal pudendal and vaginal arteries.
Decent of testicles
- Decend from gubernaculum, through inguinal canal to scrotum.
- Time of decent: ruminants and pig is before birth
- carnivores right after birth
- horse 10-14 days before or after birth.
- Ureters loop around vas deferens. Occurs when testicles decend.
undecentded testicle; generally hereditary, can be unilateral or bilateral. Don't produce sperm, associated with cancer if not removed.
string that regresses and pulls testicle throug inguinal canal into the scrotum
testis or testicle
- Male gonad, analogue of ovaries. Produces testosterone and spermatogonia (become sperm).
- Can be abdominal or extraabdominal in sac called scrotom.
- Size varies between species, not related to body size. Solid ellipsoid.
- Rodents and bats can retract.
- Ruminants have vertical orientation, dogs horizontal.
body of testicle where germ cells differentiate into speratozoa. Converge in effernt ductules which lead into head of epididymis and unite to form epididymal duct.
continuous, coiled channel forming the epididymis between the effernt ductles and the deferent duct.
- structure adjacent to testicle formed by epididymal duct.
- Has three parts: head (first part)
- body (middle part, contains coil)
- tail (bulbous end. becomes ductus deferens)
- Spermatozoa mature in head and body of epididymis and are then transferred to ductus deferens
Ductus Deferens (Deferent duct, vas deference)
- emerges from distal tail of epididymis and travels beside body of epididymis, up spermatic cord and through inguinal canal to reach abdomen. Dorsal to urinary bladder, through prostate, enters urethra.
- Abdominal part is supported by mesoductus.
- In some species, ends in accessory gland called ampulla.
- structure extending from testicle through inguinal canal.
- Composed of ductus deference, testicle vessels, nerves, lymphatics and serous coverings.
- Lots of lymph.
- Sympathetic innervation
functions to draw heat from testicular argery cooling the blood before it reaches the testicle.
a slip of muscle detached from the interal abdominal oblique, passing trough inguinal canal. Attaches to vaginal tunics of the spermatic cord and draw up the testicles when injury threatens or it is too cold (shrink scrotum to withdraw testes)
- pouch containing testicles and epididymis.
- Skin, dartos, fascia (no fat) and the vaginal tunic.
- In pig and cat, directly below anus. Other domestic species have a pendulous scrota a distance below anus.
- Medial groove divides it into right and left halves.
- Can be alopecious or heavily haired (species).
- sebaceous and sweat glands.
Reproductive function of urethra
- common passage for sperm and urine.
- Pelvic part: cranial--through prostate
- caudal--surrounded by urethralis
- joined by ductus deferens and prostatic ducts
- Penile or cavernous part.
Accessory reproductive glands (male)
- glands associated with the urethra tat add liquid portion to ejaculate.
- Ampulla (dilation at end of ductus deferens)
- vesicular (not in dog or cat)
- bulbourethral (not in dog, vestigal in cat)
- male copulatory organ extending from the ischial arch cranially (except in cat) between the thighs.
- Passageway for sperm and urine
- Three parts: root (proximal at ischiatic arch), body, Glans (distal free end).
- 3 layers of erectile tissue
- Smegma-secreting glands and lymph vessels in all species, internal and external.
- Internal pudendal artery to penile artery, parasympathetic innervations.
- classified according to connective tissue: fibroelastic and musculocavernous
Male reproductive species difference
- Sigmoid flexure: double ("s") curve in ruminant and boar. Erect is straightened out, so longer
- Preputial diverticulum: blind pouch in dirsal wall of boar's prepuce
- Cat is only domestic animal where penis faces caudally
- Os penis in dog and cat, helps with intromission.
- Cat has backward projecting spines on the glans penis.
- Boar has twisted "corkscrew" glans penis
- Bovine has twisted glans penis with urethral process.
- ruminants and boars.
- Large connective tissue content cause firmness even without erection.
- Erection is characterized by greatly increasing length (straighten sigmoid flexure) and stiffening without and increase in diameter.
- carnivores and horses.
- Low connective tissue content causes flaccidity without erection.
- Erection increases length and diameter while stiffening.
cutaneous sheath around the free part of the penis when not erect. Inner lamina is continuous with the skin over the glans penis. Outer lamina is continuous with skin of the abdomen.
can't extrude penis
can't retract penis
caused by defect in dorsal apical ligament in bulls; if short, causes a deviation of penis
urethra is blocked by urolithiasis. Inability to urinate. Emergency.
Prolapse of the prepuce
common in Brahma bulls
the smegma (cheesy secretion of the sebaceous gland) and debris that becomes trapped in urethral sinus of the horse's glans penis
Terms for a male horse
- Intact: stallion
- Castrated: gelding
Terms for a male ox
- intact: bull
- castrated: steer
terms for a male pig
- intact: boar
- castrated: barrow
terms for a male sheep
- intact: ram
- castrated: wether
terms for a male goat
- intact: buck or billy
- castrated: wether
terms for a male chicken
- intact: rooster
- castrated: capon
terms for a male cat
Tom or gib
terms for a male dog