What are the 4 reasons you are more likely to help?
1. Feel Competent
2. Perceive few costs
3. With a group of friends
4. Consumed alcohol.
What were the results of Darley and Latane (1968) Diffusion of Responsibility experiment. (When they measured percentage and looking response.)
The more people were believed to be around the person the less people looked and the longer it took for them to. so 1 person 85% and 52 seconds and 5 people were 31% and 166 seconds.
What were the results of P.M. Markey's (2000) internet version of Darley and Latanes diffusion of responsibility study?
same results EXCEPT when called by name Ss had a quick response.
What were the results of Garcia et al (2002) diffusion of responsibility study? (where Ss imagined having dinner with a large group or 1 or 2 people)
Ss who imagined having dinner with a large group volunteered less time. "unaccountable "exempt" cognitively accessible.
What were the results of Darley & Batsons (1973) study where seminary Ss had to give a talk about the good samaritan or jobs and then were told they were early, on time, or late?
Ahead - 63% stopped and helped
On Time - 45% stopped and helped
Late - 10% stopped and helped.
What did Wilson and Petruska (1984) find about information indicating nothing is wrong?
Ss are more attentitive to information indcating nothing is wrong.
What were the results of Latane and Darley (1968) Social Comparison study (smoke pumped into room).
If Ss were alone 75% reported smoke when alone, 38% with 3 "naive" people, and 10% with 2 "silent" confederate.
What were the results of Shotland & Straw's (1976) Social convention study. (Ss believed fight was between a mand and wife or a woman and a stranger).
When Ss believed the couple was married 19% intervened and when they believed it was a woman and a stranger 65% intervened.
Why are you more likely to help when you are with a group of friends? (2 reasons)
1. You communicate and get accurate information about what is going on and what to do
2. Being with friends triggers feelings of compssion towards people in general.
Why are you more likely to help when you have consumed alcohol? (Steele et. al. (1985)) 2 reasons
1. Steele's study says alcohol causes "cognitive myopia" so they attend to fewer cues.
2. attend to victims needs. relatively unaware of situational ambiguities and neative consequences.
What were the results of Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) first experiment where Ss were randomly assigned to play prosocial, antisocial, or neutral video games?
prosocial - 67%
antisocial - 28%
neutral - 33%
Helped when experimenter dropped a cup of pens/pencils.
What were the results of Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) 2nd experiment where Ss were randomly assigned to play either a prosocial video game or a neutral video game and then asked to volunteer for another study?
Prosocial - 100% agreed to volunteer and volunteered 33.06 min.
Neutral - 68% agreed to volunteer and volunteered 14.74 min.
So prosocial were more likely to volunteer and volunteered more time than those that played neutral.
What were the results of Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) 3rd experiment where Ss were randomly assigned to play either a prosocial video game or a neutral video game with a female experimenter whose boyfriend came in and started yelling at her?
Prosocial - 56% intervened
Neutral - 22% intervened.
What were the results of Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) 4th experiment where Ss were randomly assigned to play either a prosocial video game or a neutral video game asked to write an essay and then the experimenter dropped the cup of pens.
Prosocial: 1.26 prosocial thoughts, 63% helped
Neutral: 0.06 prosocial thoughts, 22% helped
What is the definition of altruism?
Helping soley for benefit of person in need
What is the definition of egoism:
Helping for personal motive.
What was the results of Batson et al (1981) say about helping and reducing distress?
If the helper feels empathy for a person in need, helping altruistically motivated to reduce other's distress BUT if helper oes not feel empathy, helping egotistically motivated to reduce own other's distress.
Cialdini et al's Negative-State Relief model (1987): Elaine receives shocks, Ss learned she is really fearful of shocks. Seeing "Elaine" in pain did what?
Seeing "elaine" in pain made Ss sad and depressed, especially if they felt similar to her.
It Batson et al (1981) experiment of Elaine Ss were given a chance to trade places with Elaine. What were the results?
High "empathy"/Difficult Escape: 91%
High "empathy"/Easy Escape: 82%
Low "empathy"/Difficult Escape: 64%
Low "empathy"/Easy Escape. 18%
Empathy led Ss to trade placed with other even when an egoistic means to avoid distress was available. If no empathy, got the hell out of there when could.
What were the results of Cialdini et al's Negative-State Relief Model (1987): when given a chance to help "carol"?
If Ss believed the helping could not relieve sadness, feeling empathy for carol did not increase helping but if they believed they could alter their mood empathy did increase helping.
Singer et al. (2004): fMRI study found what about empathy?
there was a large overlap between cortical areas activated by receiving and observing loved one receiving shock. Individual empathy scores also correlated with neural activity while observing shock.
What is the Baumeister-Bushman Resolution?
For loved ones, egoistic, and altruistic motivations completely overlap. All things equal, egoistic motivations figure prominently for those more emotionally distant to the helper.
Levine et al. (1994) looked at various types of helping in 36 US cities. what were the most/least helpful cities?
Most: Rochester, NY
What were the results of Seligman, Fazio, & Zanna (1980) (intrinsic, extrinsic reasons & love scale)
"extrinsic-reasons" Ss expressed less love and saw marriage as lessl ikely than did "intrinsic-reasons" Ss.
______________ begets attraction.
Similarity begets attraction
What did Newcome (1961) find with Ss and people they agreed with?
Ss were more likely to become friends iwth those they agreed with.
Does the degree of similarity between people seem to change with time?
Attraction begets sperceived similarity: What did Gold et al (1984) find in his study about males and the females they are attracted to?
Males falsely assume that females are similar to them if they are attracted to them.
What did Murray et al. (2002) find about partners in satisfying, stable relationships?
Partners in satisfying, stable relationships falsely perceive similarities with mates... think partner is a kindred spirit.
What is Swanns's self-concept say?
self concept helps us to know what to expect, and provides a sense of control and security. Therefore, people self-verify - they seek information that confirms existin self-concept.
What did Swann et al (1994) find about partners?
Married: preferred self-verifying partners - precipitate shift to authenticity strivings, If mate sees us for who wer are, allowed to develop unique potentials.