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What does a vertebrae consist of?
- Vertebral body
- Vertebral (neural) arch
- Seven processes
What provides strength and support?
Vertebrae: What protects the spinal canal?
Vertebral (neural) arch
Vertebrae: What provides attachment and movement?
The 7 spinous processes
Which spinous processes allow attachment and movement?
The 2 transverse processes
Vertebrae: Which spinous processes restrict movement?
The 4 articular processes
What is the disc comprised of?
- An anulus fibrosus
- Nucleus pulposus
What is the function of the disc?
- Attachment between vertebral bodies
- Acts as a shock absorber
What is the function of the vertebral column? (4 things)
- 1. Protect
- 2. Support
- 3. Provides an axis
- 4. Posture and locomotion
What is the function of ligaments?
Joint stability and prevention of injury
How many pairs of spinal nerves do you have?
Afferent (sensory fibers)
Efferent (motor) fibers
Abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature
Anterior rotation of the pelvis
Abnormal lateral curvature acompanied by rotation of the vertebrae
Common conditions of discs? (2)
- Degenerative Disc Disease (closer settling discs)
- Bulging or Herniated Disc
What can occur as a result of:
Sudden, forceful flexion or extension of the vertebral column
Fracture or dislocation of the vertebrae
Which cervical discs are most commonly ruptured?
C5/C6 and C6/C7
Which non-cervical discs are most commonly ruptured?
T11 or T12
A specific defect in the connection between vertebrae
A condition in which a in the spine slips out of the proper position onto the bone below it
Narrowing of the spinal canal
Most common disability for those under age 45
Large majority of people can return to normal functioning after 4-6 weeks
What % of people develop chronic back pain?
Conditions that may result from a back injury (3)
- Foot drop- can be caused by disease (multiple sclerosis) and/or injury (herniated disc)
- Sciatica- can result from structural issues in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions.
- Cauda Equina Syndrome -a result of direct irritation or pinching of the nerves at the end of the spinal cord
What tests may be done for back pain? (6)
- 1. X-rays
- 2. Bone scans
- 3. CT Scan
- 4. MRI
- 5. Nerve conduction Studies
- 6. Electromyography (EMG)
List 5 conservative treatments for back pain.
- 1. Modalities- heat, ice, ultrasound, TENS machine
- 2. Proper posture and lifting techniques
- 3. Stretching
- 4. Strengthening
- 5. Low Impact Aerobic Conditioning