"The Autocracy" The most absolutist state in Europe!
Absolutism-> " "?
What are characteristics of Absolutism?
Monarchs want to control:
Was a french jurist and political philosopher, he is best known for his theory of sovereignty. Known for his divine Right of Kings
God gave power to the kings?
Divine Right of Kings
Many of the nobility followed Calvinism and did not stick with what? Which led to what?
The Catholic Church, which led to war for about 30 years
Becomes king of France who is married to Margot (daughter of Catherine de Medici)
-Is a protestant leader who becomes catholic
-He fights with the protestants
-He wants to end all civil wars in France, but he cant becasue the people would not accept a protestant king
Henry of Navarre, He becomes Henry IV (4th)
This allowed the protestants, huguenots freedom of conscious and civil liberties of the Huguenots (french protestants) in the predominately Catholic France
-This is the first time having multiple religions in ONE country
-goes against the Peace of Augsburg
Edict of Nantes
When did the catholics murder protestants at a wedding?
St. Bartholomew's Day
Russia-> who rules is Russia? and what is his name?
Autocrats which are a ruler where the power is invested in HIM exclusively
-HIs name is Autocrat Tsar
What was different about England unlike France and Russia?
Absolutism never made it in England, They had a civil war and did away with monarchy)
Henry IV's metholodical administer who helped him launch a comprehensive program of economic reconstruction which benefitted agriculture and commerce from the increased security of life
The Duke of Sully
Who was an English philosopher who wrote a book called Leviathan. He is remembered for his work on political philosophy. In this book he set out his doctorine of the foundation of societies and legitimate governments, it was written in English Civil War. The book described the necesity of a strong central authority to avoid the evil and civil war
When Henry IV dies, Who becomes King?
Henry IV's son, Louis XIII
He was very young when he was put to be king so he had a chief advisor named? He was "Greatest and most Ruthless" statesman in the history of France
He favored the protestants but hated the Habsburgs
-He forced the Huguenots to demilitarize (no forts) but doesnt kick them out... they refused so he went to war with them.. made dueling-fighting in France illegal
Louis XIII (13th)
are workers hired by the government of Paris (the central goverment)
want to control the army, taxes, and legal system
Who initiated the thirty years war with Habsburgs of Germany?
The king= Father of the Nation.. This means?
It's Gods will to put the Father ahead of the family-> Gods will to put the king ahead of the nation.... therefore if you challenge the king, your challenging God
Who becomes the next king? and takes over the advising position for Cardinal Richelieu?
Louis XIV(14th) and Cardinal Richelieu is replaced by Cardinal Mazarin (Italian)
What is a little Civil War within France during Louis XIV's reign? This was a failed attempt to regain centralized power.. started from objections to high taxes
What is Louis XIV (14th) known for? and what else did he do?
"The Sun King", and he set up the middle class to run the government while the nobility sat around and did very little
-He let the nobles live with him as his "lap dogs" so he could control them... but he gave work to the middle class- He Built up the middle class
-he also revokes the Edictof Nantes
"New France"-> known as?
A palace built for Louis XIV? He also movedthe dynasty from Paris to this place
What styly of paintings and architecture was favored at this time period?
Baroque style which is artwork that impressed visitors, very powerful and expressive
Who were some famous French artists at this time?
Claude Lorraine and Nicolas Poussin, and Pierre Cornellie wrote elegant plays
Who was assigned to manage the finances of Louis XIV?
He refuses to listen to the Puritans and make England Presbyterian, he also replaces the Book of Common Prayer with his own Bible, He hated calling parliament so he sold titles to prevent having to go to parliament for money
-He agreed with the idea of "The Divine Right of Kings", claimed that God put him where he needed to be,
King James I
are laws that regulated what type of clothing each social class could wear
Who took over James I reign once he died? what does he do?
Charles I, He forces citizens to quarter soldiers to save money
Charles I names who as Archbishop of Canterbury? and what do they do?
William Laud as archbishop, they try to root out the Puritans
Rooting out the Puritans leads to what War? what does it consist of?
English Civil War, he marches to parliament with 400 soldiers to impose the will of God
Cavaliers vs. Roundheads
A puritan and parliamentarian who creates a techniwue to fight against the king?
Oliver Cromwell and this technique is called the New Model Army, Cromwell and the Roundheads are victorious and they hang Charles I
are radical protestants who insisted that social justice become a part of parliaments agenda "God made men and the Devil made kings"
What do the Roundheads do?
They were victorious, they end monarchy, end the church of england, end upper parliament, and introduce the idea of Commonwealth
What does Oliver Cromwell become known as of the commonwealth? what els do Cromwell do?
He becomes known as the Lord Protector.
He also divides England and Scotland into 12 military districts
When Cromwell dies what happens? what is this period called?
The people go to Charles II because they dont want a puritan society.. The Restoration period
Starts the Restoration and he led the Protestant Church of England as a catholic
-he rewarded his supporters with land, 8 men got Carolina, William the Penn got Pennslyvania, Duke of York took over New Amsterdam and renamed it New York
Who started the Glorious Revolution?
William III and Mary, they had to sign a bill or rights before they ruled
What happens under Anne I?
Shes protestant, Parliament passes an act of succession that cuts out the Catholics from ruling England
Wrote an influential political tract -called The Second Treatise of Government to justify to the world and the people of England: formed constitutional forms of government
In Russia... The autocrat started where?
In the Ukranian city of Kiev, "The Bread Basket"... trade was very important to this town
Who invades Kiev?
The Vikings: a group of men who expanded their power by taking territory through their military might, they are very involved in trade
The Noble class of Russia is known as?
Boyars-mixture of Slovic women and Viking men
The Boyars meet at the Duma: the ruling body of Russia
A chief bishop of the Church?
Why does the state begin to deteriorate?
Because one of the Dukes of Kiev decides to divide the territory among his sons
They destroy Kiev and set up camp in this city. who are the people and where is this city? Why did they destroy?
The mongols and the city of Sarai, because they wanted tribute which is men, slaves, money, food
Russian village where the peasants live?
The mongols built up what on the Bolger River?.... is a city where the people of Kiev move after the Mongols destory everything?
Saray... move to city of Muscovy,"Moscow"
Wants to lead the Russians, told Mongols to put him in charge, is a tax collector, calls himself the "sovereign prince of Russia" "Money Bags"
kicks the Mongols out, He ends Mongol rul and is then called Ivan The Great... he was arranged a marriage with Sophia.. then makes him a tsar( new title of the Russian Ruler)
Whats the symbol of Russia?
Sophia, Tsar's wife, brought over some italian builders/architects to build a fort called what? and where?
Called Kremlin(fortress) in Moscow
What increases in Russia?
Serfdom.. tying peasants to land, giving the nobility power over the peasants.
known as "The terrible" creates an elite body gaurd force called what?
Ivan IV.. called the Streltsi
Ivan IV's first wife?
Who becomes Tsar after Ivan IV?
Peter I.. "The Great", leaves russia to learn about West, he ends streltsi and builds a new army of peasants (200,000) and navy based on western models and pays for it by taxing everything and everyone.
Peter I goes to War with his new army against?
Against the Swedish Empire this is called the Great Northern War it lasted 20 years
He took over the church and one Swedish city, which is where he builds what?
(new capital) St Petersburg, he melted church bells to make cannons "Peter the Great"
What is the time of troubles?
When the poles invade Russia and take over,
Peter I also changed the calender to what?
Julian calendar- old style (western europe is on the greogrian calendar)-new style
Peter also got rid of the Duma and created his own what?
His own senate and changed the head of the church to a group of bishops