Chapter 14

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Chapter 14
2012-12-08 22:11:07
Chapter 14

Chapter 14
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  1. What are three themes of the Scientific Revolution?
    • 1. Dare to Know (dont rely on past knowledge)
    • 2. Useful Knowledge (that will be helpful)
    • 3. Demystify the universe
  2. Who ran into the New World?
  3. a polish priest who publishes a book "The Revolution of Heavenly Spheres" and revived the Heliocentric Theory in his book, used math to support his theory
  4. Aristarchus' theory that everything revolved around the sun and therefore the sun was at the center of the universe
    Heliocentric Theory
  5. came up with the Heliocentric Theory and disagreed with Aristotle
  6. Believed in the Geocentri theory and the use of Tolomy
  7. the belife that the earth was at the center of the universe
    Geocentric Theory
  8. Theorists and Scientists believed this man was right so they published it before he died
  9. Accepted Copernicus's Heliocentric theory 
  10. Planets circle the sun in ellipses and the closer the planets get to the sun, the faster they move.
    Kepler's Law of Planetary Motion
  11. built a telescope, a professor, and published "The Dialog", although he got in trouble with his catholic church beliefs.. was sent to an inquisition trial about them and he ended up recanting them (taking back his beliefs)
  12. was convinced that you cannot depend on science without some certainty, wrote the Novum Organum
    Francis Bacon
  13. What is the Novum Organum?
    there has to be a new method to establish scientific knowledge with certainty
  14. What is Bacon's method?
    Empirical Method/Inductive Method of reasoning... this means you must observe and collect date.. use ones senses 
  15. His experimental method is Cartesian Method... he published the "Discourse on Method" 
  16. What is the Discourse on Method? 
    The basis for deductive reasoning ... which is coming up with a hypothesis (reason) then proving it mathematically.. use your brain!!
  17. Who combined the two methods proposed by Bacon and Descartes (Inductive and Deductive reasoning)?
    Isaac Newton
  18. Was a professor at Cambridge University, worked for William III, created Calculus, also wrote Principia Mathematica in Latin which explain the laws of Gravity
    Isaac Newton
  19. Three themes of the Enlightenment?
    • 1. The universe is intelligible and understandable
    • (we can understand the universe)
    • 2. Apply the Scientific Method
    • 3. Everyone is educable 
  20. Wrote an essay concerning human understanding- and talked about Tabula Rasa? 
    John Locke.. Tabula Rasa means everyone is born with a blank sleight
  21. the best way of learning=?
    to educate
  22. people who viewed God as a "divine clock maker", its the belief that there is a prime mover/creator, but doesnt get involved after that... once god put people on earth, he does not control them anymore.
  23. what gives us hope and belief in education?
    Virtue and Intelligence.... reformers/thinkers
  24. Want to change how? not by revolution
    through reform
  25. "Prince of Philosophies", thought England had it right.. limited the government, constitution 
    He defined the Civil Liberties (free speech)
  26. Who published the first encyclopedia?
  27. Who published the "Spirit of the Laws",  came up with the idea of seperating government into three branches (executive, legislative, and judiciary branch)... also listed a system of checks and balances for the three branches
  28. Can veto legislation?
    Executive Branch
  29. Can review laws and declare them constitutional or unconstitutional?
    Judicial Branch
  30. Can impeach an executive and Judges
    Legislative Branch
  31. Studied punishment, wrote a book called "On Crimes and Punishments" which compared nations' penal systems, death penalty was not a deterrent,
    became an opponent of ending capital punishment (only used for Capitol offenses)
    most European countries ended torture
    Beccaria (Italian Judge)
  32. are dreamers, elitists