Sport Psych

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yousefelso
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188085
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Sport Psych
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2012-12-09 00:01:44
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sport psych
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sport psych
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  1. Psychological Skills Training (PST)
    • ·       
    • The systematic and consistent practice of mental
    • or psychological skills

    • ·       
    • Psychological skills can be learned but
    • must be practiced and integrated into your routine

    • ·       
    • Psychological factors account for most day to
    • day fluctuations in performance
  2. Myths:
    • ·       
    • Psychological skills are innate (they cannot be
    • learned)

    • ·       
    • Only for “problem athletes”

    • ·       
    • Only effective for the “elite” athlete

    • ·       
    • Provide for “quick fix” solutions

    • ·       
    • Not useful – “hocus pocus” 
  3. Components of PST Program:
    • 1.      Education
    • Phase: Learn the nature and basis of the skill and understand how it
    • influences performance

    • 2.      Acquisition
    • Phase: Structure training
    • program to develop skills and techniques

    • 3.      Practice
    • Phase: Integrate skill
    • development into practice and competitive settings
  4. PST Program: ·       
    Needs Assessment: 
    • -       
    • Evaluate strength and weaknesses

    • -       
    • Oral interview and psychology inventory

    • -       
    • Performing Profiling
  5. PST Program: ·       
    What?:
    • -       
    • Which skills to include?

    • -       
    • Scheduling

    • -       
    • Evaluation and follow-up
  6. PST Program: ·       
    Problems:
    • -       
    • Lack of conviction

    • -       
    • Lack of time

    • -       
    • Lack of knowledge

    • -       
    • Lack of follow-up
  7. 1.     
    Psychological
    Skills (INITIAL FOCUS)
    • -       
    • Personal qualities to be attained or developed
    • (ex: target behaviours)
  8. 1.     
    Psychological
    Skills (INITIAL FOCUS) a)     
    Performance
    Skills: 
    • -       
    • Optimal Arousal (mental and physical)

    • -       
    • Attention Control
  9. 1.     
    Psychological
    Skills (INITIAL FOCUS)a)     
    Foundation
    Skills: 
    • -       
    • Self-Confidence

    • -       
    • Motivation

    • -       
    • Self-Awareness

    • -       
    • Self-Esteem
  10. 1.     
    Psychological
    Skills (INITIAL FOCUS)a)     
    Facilitative
    Skills:
    • -       
    • Interpersonal-Awareness

    • -       
    • Lifestyle Management
  11. Pride = ________ & Process = ________
    Skill ; method
  12. 1.      Psychological Methods (SECONDARY FOCUS)
    • -       
    • Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological
    • SKILLS (vehicle used to attain skills)

    • -       
    • Goal Setting, relaxation, imagery, thought
    • processes (self-talk), attribution.
  13. Others = 
    • -       
    • = Spectators or audience (observers)

    • =
    • Co-actors (others doing same task-opponent)
  14. a)     
    SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORY (Zajonc, 1965) 
    The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels (more anxious) and causes a response to occur faster or more intensely

    • 1.     
    • Increased arousal will increase the likelihood
    • that an individual’s dominant response will occur

    • 2.     
    • In simple, well learned skills, correct
    • responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others

    • 3.     
    • In complexor newly learned skills the
    • dominant responses may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be
    • impaired in the presence of others.
  15. Evaluation
    Apprehension:
    • a)     
    • It’s not just the presence of others that causes
    • arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will be judge or
    • evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal ad
    • influences performance effectiveness. 
  16. -       
    An audience can thus have either an ______
    or a ________ effect and  produces
    resultant variations in performance or behaviour (DRIVE THEORY)
    Arousing ; calming
  17. Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980)
    • -       
    • Incorporates both of the above theories but takes
    • it one step further

    • -       
    • The performer is not simply a reactor who
    • responds to an audience

    • -       
    • The performer is a PROACTIVE participant
    • who…

    • o  
    • Interprets the social situation (through
    • perceptions and exceptions)

    • o  
    • Predicts the possible audience reaction

    • o  
    • And alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction

    • -       
    • Previous experience, age, gender
    • and personality will all influence the individuals subject
    • interpretation of the social situation

    • -       
    • The size of the audience is not as
    • important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation
    • (numbers according to setting—hostile vs. supportive)

    • -       
    • Expertise interpret whether the crowd can
    • accurately assess the quality of the performance

    • -       
    • Supportiveness quality of social support
    • from those present
  18. Home feild advantages (Varca, 1980)
    • o  
    • Functional aggression (home) = more rebounds,
    • blocks, steals

    • o  
    • Dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls,
    • turnovers
  19. Home field disadvantages (Beaumeister, 1984):
    • Increased self-consciousness distracts from the
    • automatic execution of skills (playoffs)
  20. There is very little that can be done to eliminate the
    stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events BUT…
    • o  
    • Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control
    • arousal especially when learning new skill

    • o  
    • Knowledge is power – educate and inform
    • participants about it!

    • -Inform the athletes about the common physiological reactions to stress
    • so they can recognize them when they occur (butterflies, muscle tension etc…)

    - Inform the athletes how audiences can influence performance

    • -Inform them about the effects that stress and anxiety can have on
    • performance
  21. Perfect Practice makes Perfect:
    • a)     
    • Over learn skills, techniques, strategy

    • b)     
    • Train by simulating audience effects (taped or
    • real crowds at practice)

    • c)     
    • Pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and
    • rookie – buddies)
  22. Specificity
    • Arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction
    • situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last second or
    • minutes; special teams)
  23. Arousal
    • o  
    • A blend of physiological and psychological
    • activation

    • o  
    • The intensity of motivation at any particular
    • time

    • o  
    • Activation or excitation ranging on a continuum
    • from sleep to hyper-intensity  (different
    • activities need different levels of arousal)

    • o  
    • Caused by anticipation of an even, a threat or
    • worry 
  24. Stress
    • o  
    • “Fight or Flight” (Selye, 1950)

    • o  
    • The result of a substantial influence
    • between the physical and psychological demands of a task and one’s
    • response capabilities under conditions where failure has important
    • consequences. 
  25. 4 Stages of stress
    • -       
    • Environmental demand

    • -       
    • Perception of demand (threat)

    • -       
    • Stress response (anxiety)

    Behavioural consequences (outcome/performance)
  26. Anxiety
    • ·       
    • A negative emotional state characterized by
    • nervousness, worry and apprehension

    • ·       
    • Has a cognitive (mental) component
    • (worry, apprehension etc…)

    • ·       
    • Also has a somatic (physiological)
    • component (increased heart rate or breathing rate, sweating, nausea,
    • “butterflies”, faint)
  27. Drive Theory (Spence, 1966)
    • ·       
    • Performance = f(habit/drive) – f is  a function

    • ·       
    • How well learned is the skill / how motivated
    • are you?

    • ·       
    • Linear relationship between arousal and
    • performance (as arousal increases so does performance)

    • ·       
    • Impact dependant on how well the task is learned
    • (social facilitator theory)

    • ·       
    • There is no longer much support for this theory

    • ·       
    • Arousal/Stress/Anxiety are not always bad things
  28. Inverted U Hypothesis
    • ·       
    • There are optimal levels of arousal

    • ·       
    • Once reach optimal level, performance
    • deteriorates if you continue to become more aroused or activated

    • ·       
    • Is a zone not a point (IZOF – Individual
    • Zone of Optimal Function (Hanin))

    • ·       
    • Varies from person to person

    • ·       
    • Different tasks have different optimal levels
    • (even insane event)
  29. Catastrophe Theory (Mandy, 1996)
    • ·       
    • Somatic anxiety can have markedly different effects
    • on performance depending on the cognitive anxiety (worry) being experienced

    • ·       
    • If worry is low – inverted U relationship

    • ·       
    • If worry is high – activation reaches an optimal
    • threshold after which there is a dramatic or “catastrophic” decline in
    • performance (individual literally falls apart, can’t perform as they are so
    • worried)

    • ·       
    • Difficult to recover from one experience (could
    • take several games to recover as you just keep thinking about it)
  30. Reversal Theory: (Apter and Kerr,
    1984/1985)
    • ·       
    • It is the cognitive interpretation of one’s
    • arousal level that impacts performance

    • ·       
    • High arousal = excitement  or anxiety

    • ·       
    • Low arousal = relaxation or boredom

    • ·       
    • Pleasant or unpleasant?

    • ·       
    • Individuals are subject to very rapid changes or
    • reversals in their interpretation of the same event (ex: parachuting)

    • ·       
    • The best performance then to be when
    • interpretation is pleasant excitement.
  31. Anxiety:
    (Spielberger, 1966)
    • ·       
    • Need for Achievement vs. Fear of Failure

    • ·       
    • These are personality traits, independent or one
    • another and stable over long periods of time

    • ·       
    • They are basic traits that will influence how
    • arousal will affect a person in a specific situation (competitive sport)
  32. Trait Anxiety:
    • ·       
    • Stable personality tendency to perceive
    • situations as threatening when they are really not
  33. State Anxiety: 
    • ·       
    • A changing emotional state characterized
    • by tension and apprehension and by autonomic nervous system reactions

    • ·       
    • Measure with inventories like SCAT (Sport
    • Competition Anxiety Test) – Martens, 1977)
  34. SCAT:
    • ·       
    • Assess the degree of the personality trait
    • of anxiety

    • ·       
    • Assess the degree of stress before, during and
    • after an event (state anxiety)

    • ·       
    • Assess the overall effect of anxiety during a
    • competition
  35. Findings of SCAT: 
    • ·       
    • No difference in trait or state anxiety levels
    • between:

    • -       
    • Participants and non-participants

    • -       
    • Most skilled vs. least skilled competition
    • (rookies vs. vets)

    • -       
    • Assess the overall effect of anxiety during a
    • competition

    • -       
    • State anxiety levels gradually decrease with age
    • and experience

    • ·       
    • High trait anxious individuals experience higher
    • feelings of state anxiety prior to, during and after competition.

    • ·       
    • Trait anxiety levels have no influence on
    • ultimate ability levels of the performers

    Sources of Stress – INDIVIDUALIZED! 
  36. Sources of Stress:
    1.      Situational:


    • -       
    • Importance
    • of the event or segments of it

    • -       
    • Uncertainty
    • of outcome or life events

    2.      Personal:


    • -       
    • Trait Anxiety

    • -       
    • Self-Esteem

    • -       
    • Social physique evaluation of anxiety (how do I
    • look compared to them—predominant in fashion)
  37. What are some factors influencing perception of stress (situational)?
    • a)     
    • Individual/ team sports

    • b)     
    • Expectations for success

    • c)     
    • Winning vs. losing/ trying to do one’s best
    • (outcome vs. performance) *reference to goal setting

    • d)     
    • Attributions to outcome- learned helplessness
    • (“they were just lucky,” etc.)

    • ·       
    • “nothing I can do; no matter how hard I try I
    • can’t win”
  38. What is fear of success?
    • ·       
    • Homer, 1985

    • ·       
    • Withhold effort or involvement so we don’t have
    • to live up to levels attained in previous best performance
  39. What are the effects of anxiety?
    • 1.       
    • Somatic- interferes with muscle coordination
    • (tense); simultaneous contraction of antagonist muscle groups

    • 2.       
    • Psychological- distress and distraction of
    • attention

    • ·       
    • Think about physical problems (feeling nervous,
    • knees shaking) and not focusing on task at hand

    • ·       
    • Narrowing the visual field and eliminations of
    • visual cues

    • ·       
    • Thinking about nervousness rather than the task
    • you need to perform (fixated)
  40. Anxiety results in a negative cycle/ spiral (more anxious,
    more detriment to performance, poorer performance, more anxiety)
    • -       
    • Must learn to break the cycle and control
    • arousal (stress and anxiety)

    • -       
    • Be in control but relaxed (coping)

    • -       
    • Players and coaches must learn various
    • techniques to help them COPE with the anxiety that arises from competition
  41. What is coping?
    • ·       
    • A dynamic process of constantly changing
    • cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific internal/ external demands
    • viewed as exceeding one’s resources (Lazarus and Folkman)

    • ·       
    • Can be problem focused (manage the problem;
    • “every time I got to the plate I feel anxious- how do I manage this particular
    • situation?) or emotion focused (regulating emotional responses)
  42. Techniques
    to cope with state anxiety 
    • ·       
    • Self- awareness- monitoring own tension levels,
    • recognizing and accepting (can be facilitative or debilitative)

    • ·       
    • Dissociation- change the focus of attention from
    • stressor to a more neutral situation (don’t think about it)
  43. Prevention of long- term/ chronic problems (can’t sleep,
    restless and fidgety, pre- game nausea)

    Physiological/ somatic techniques- used toreduce physical tension levels)
    • o  
    • Progressive relaxation:

    • § 
    • Jacobson, 1938

    • § 
    • Contraction and relaxation of muscle groups in a
    • sequential order (p.275)

    • o  
    • Biofeedback

    • § 
    • Use of instrumentation to provide signals that
    • indicate current and subsequent levels of physiological tension

    • § 
    • Examples: heart rate monitor (actually hearing
    • your heart rate slow, every beep of your pulse can be sensed), blood pressure,
    • galvanic skin response (sweat monitor), etc.

    • o  
    • Breath control
  44. Prevention of long- term/ chronic problems (can’t sleep,
    restless and fidgety, pre- game nausea)·       
    Cognitive techniques- used to reduce worry and
    negative thoughts
    • o  
    • Meditation (relaxation response)

    • § 
    • Quiet the mind, passive process

    • § 
    • Use of mantra

    • § 
    • Count exhalations

    • o  
    • Autogenic training

    • § 
    • Exercise designed to provide feelings of warmth
    • and heaviness (P.278)

    • o  
    • Hypnosis

    • § 
    • Gradual progression into a trance- like state
    • during which goal directed suggestions are given by the leader

    • o  
    • Matching hypothesis

    • § 
    • Match anxiety type with style of intervention
    • (cognitive and somatic)

    Match the problem with the cure
  45. What are MULTIMODAL REDUCTION PACKAGES? 
    • ·       
    • SMT (state)

    • o  
    • Stress management training

    • o  
    • Sit with a councilor

    • o  
    • An integrated cognitive and somatic intervention
    • strategy

    • o  
    • Accounts for situation, appraisal of situation,
    • physiological response and actual behavior

    • ·       
    • SIT (trait)

    • o  
    • Stress inoculation theory

    • o  
    • Gradual exposure to and coping with increasingly
    • stressful situations
  46. Dealing with acute problems: ·       
    Immediately and prior to/ during a contest

    ·       
    Helps participants focus on the task at hand

    ·       
    Negative thought stopping (positive thinking)
    • A.    
    • SELF TALK
    • A.    
    • REFOCUSING- “parking”
    •     
    • BREATH CONTROL
  47. A.    
    SELF TALK
    • ·       
    • Stop thinking negatively

    • ·       
    • Substitute positive thoughts immediately

    • ·       
    • Use CUE words, images, music, etc. (ex. Nas- I
    • know I can J )

    • ·       
    • Relatively new area of research

    • ·       
    • DEFINITION: an internal dialogue through which
    • an individual interprets feelings and perceptions, regulates evaluations and
    • convictions and gives self- instructions and reinforcement

    • o 6
    • dimensions of self- talk:

    • § 
    • Self- determined/ assigned

    • § 
    • Perspective- internal (voice in head)

    • § 
    • Valence (+ or -)

    • § 
    • Direction- perception of motivating or
    • demotivating

    • § 
    • Intensity- impact on motivation

    • § 
    • Frequency- how often it’s used

    • o Performance
    • can be influenced positively or negatively by some or all of the dimensions of
    • self- talk
  48. A.    
    REFOCUSING- “parking”
    • ·       
    • Recognize the thought/problem but set it aside
    • during competition

    • ·       
    • Realize you can’t deal with the issue now but
    • come back to deal with it at a more appropriate time

    • ·       
    • Touching:

    • o Physically
    • “park” the thought

    • o Ex.
    • Touch something (bottom of pool, fence, home plate, etc.) and leave the problem
    • there; when finished performing, return and touch the place again to collect
    • the problem and deal with it
  49. A.    
    BREATH CONTROL
    • ·       
    • Usually automatic and spontaneous (autonomic)
    • BUT you can take over control of your breathing pattern and direct your
    • breathing response

    • ·       
    • When anxiety/ fright triggers a biological alarm
    • response, the normal pattern of breathing changes- sharp inhale and hold breath
    • rather than rhythmical exhale 
  50. What are some other immediate coping techniques?
    • ·       
    • Attention control training- task at hand

    • ·       
    • Centering- breath and body control

    • ·       
    • Mental rehearsal- imagery
  51. What are some on- site relaxation techniques?
    • a)     
    • Self- monitoring of somatic tension levels

    • b)     
    • Smile- takes the edge off; release tension in
    • jaw, neck, hands

    • c)     
    • Have fun- enjoy the experience (look forward to
    • activity)

    • d)     
    • Practice stressful situations (simulate
    • pressure)

    • e)     
    • Take your time- slow down the pace, maintain
    • regular routines

    • f)      
    • Stay focused on/ in the present- leave the last
    • play behind, because you can’t change it, also forget about the future (“what
    • happens if…”); stay in the NOW

    • g)     
    • Have a game plan – easier decision making,
    • scouting and spotting opponents
  52. Arousal Induction:
    • a)     
    • Consciously increase breathing rate

    • b)     
    • Act energized

    • c)     
    • Positive self-talk

    • d)     
    • Energizing music

    • e)     
    • Arousing Imagery

    • f)      
    • Warm-up/Workout
  53. Goal
    =
    • a
    • target, standard or objective
  54. Goal setting is
    • ·       
    • A process of establishing a target or objective
    • in specific behavioural terms
  55. Three (3) main types
    of goals:
    • 1.     
    • Outcome goals – win or lose (your record)

    • 2.     
    • Performance goals – how well
    • play/personal best (preferred due to greater personal control)

    • 3.     
    • Process goal – actions to execute in
    • order to perform better
  56. Goal setting direct effect
    • 1.     
    • Directs attention and action (choice)

    • 2.     
    • Mobilizes energy (effort/vigour)

    • 3.     
    • Prolongs effort (persistence)

    • 4.     
    • Encourages the development of a strategy to
    • attain goals (action plan)
  57. Goal setting indirect effect
    • influences performance by working on psychological states
    • (anxiety, confidence, satisfaction, attention etc…) 
  58. Benefits of Goal
    Setting: 
    • 1.     
    • Increases productivity and improves quality of
    • work

    • 2.     
    • Clarifies expectations

    • 3.     
    • Relieves boredom

    • 4.     
    • Provides personal recognition

    • 5.     
    • Increases personal and task enjoyment
  59. Goals can be set for:
    • a)     
    • Training sessions (logbook)

    • b)     
    • Practice Sessions (areas to work on)

    • c)     
    • Competitive events

    • d)     
    • Team social events
  60. ·       
    For each of these sessions or events goals can
    be focused on…
    • -       
    • Conditioning

    • -       
    • Knowledge/Strategy

    • -       
    • Performance Skills

    • -       
    • Attitude / Behaviour
  61. Mata-analysis
    of goal-setting literature has shown that goal setting is the strongest effect
    on performance and satisfaction of any motivational technique
    90% have positive outcomes, average of 16% increase
  62. Principles of Goal
    Setting:
    • 1.     
    • Relatively difficult, challenging but attainable
    • (realistic to achieve)

    • 2.     
    • Specific (action-oriented) and measurable
    • (quantifiable)

    • 3.     
    • Within or geared to the ability potential
    • of the participant

    • 4.     
    • Note: The coach may need to provide a lot
    • of input when inexperienced participants set goals as they may not know the
    • task demands or be able to assess their own skill or potential.

    • 5.     
    • Public and formally committed to by the
    • participant – written or verbal contract (in a positive format)

    • 6.     
    • Flexible and adjustable (up or
    • down) at all times

    • 7.     
    • Have a specific time frame/ dates

    • 8.     
    • Sequential and prioritize but limited in number

     

    • 9.     
    • Long-term goals progressively linked by
    • intermediate and short term goals (8-10 week program is most effective)

    • ·       
    • Ex: Figure skater – pass first test, do a jump,
    • learn to spin, do a bigger jump, pass second test get an award

    • 10.  
    • Supported by the coach, who is a partner and
    • facilitator in the goal setting process (commitment and ownership)

    • 11.  
    • Evaluate and reinforce goal attainment on effort
    • before performance outcome

    • 12.  
    • Don’t tie the goals to one’s self-worth (take
    • personal risk/embarrassment out of goal attainment

    • 13.  
    • Develop goal achievement strategies (action
    • plans) that are unique to each individual/group
  63. What is goal setting
    independent of?
    • ·       
    • Age

    • ·       
    • Gender

    • ·       
    • Education Level

    • ·       
    • Personality/disposition
  64. What is the follow up to goal setting?
    • 1.      Identify
    • appropriate evaluation procedures on a regular basis (charts, stats, etc…)

    • 2.      Encourage
    • progress towards goals, not just towards goal attainment

    • 3.      Regularly
    • revaluate and adjust goals/strategies of achievement to make them more
    • realistic (especially short term goals)
  65. What is group goal setting?
    • ·       
    • Attainment of specific standards of group (not
    • individual) proficiency within a specified time/event:

    • -       
    • Practice – usually process oriented
    • focusing effort

    • -       
    • Game – more focused on outcomes and
    • implementation of specific skills/strategies
  66. As a leader in goal setting you must
    • ·       
    • Involve all participants in the formulation of
    • group goals (commitment)

    • ·       
    • Strive for consensus (work for compromise);
    • facilitate, don’t dictate

    • ·       
    • Decide on strategies to achieve goals including
    • levels of effort, commitment, behaviour and consensus

    • ·       
    • Publicize (Publicly??)  most goals and update/evaluate progress
    • regularly (each week or after each game)
  67. What are SMARTS goals?
    S – Specific

    M – Measurable

    A – Action oriented

    R – Realistic/Achievable

    T – Timing (reasonable)

    S – Self-determined
  68. INCENTIVE
    MOTIVATION!!!
    • Definition:
    • the value attached to the possible outcomes (goals) available to participants
    • in sports and physical activity = REASONS WHY PARTICIPATE 

    • ·       
    • Anticipate
    • satisfaction and enjoyment from participation

    • ·       
    • Expectancies
    • confirmed through actual experience which influences continued participation 
  69. Incentive motivation researched topic in two ways
    • a.)    Identify main incentives that
    • influence choice, persistence, and effort of participation

    • b.)    Identify the reasons why
    • participants drop out of an activity. 
  70. General Findings of research on incentive motivation
    • 1.      Each individual has his/her own
    • unique reasons for participation

    • 2.     
    • There are usually multiple motives
    • operating at various strength at any one time

    • 3.     
    • The most dominant motives that have been
    • identified are:

    • -       
    • Affiliation
    • (make or be with friends)

    • -       
    • Excellence
    • (Skill development to the highest level)

    • -       
    • Excitement/Stress(thrill
    • seeking)

    • -       
    • Success (winning)
    • and status (recognition)

    • -       
    • Fitness
    • and energy release

    • 4.     
    • Weaker but still present as distinct motives
    • are:

    • -       
    • Independence
    • (able to do on own)

    • -       
    • Power
    • (control over others)

    • -       
    • Aggression
    • (intimidation)

    • -       
    • Influence
    • of others (parents, peers, friends)

    • 5.     
    • There are no differences observed in incentive
    • motivation when analyzed for:

    • -       
    • Age

    • -       
    • Gender

    • -       
    • Type of sport

    • -       
    • Culture
    • 1.     
    • The reasons for discontinuing in an
    • activity are also multiple and complex (i.e. the failure to achieve
    • satisfaction of one or more incentives is weighed against those that have been
    • attained)

    • 2.     
    • Other sports or activities start to have a
    • greater interest than the one that you are currently involved in (conflict of
    • interest) so you drop out (sport specific – vs.—sports general drop out)

    • 3.     
    • The negative reasons for dropping out of an
    • activity are:

    • -       
    • Lack of ability (failure to improve)

    • -       
    • Lack of success (winning)

    • -       
    • Lack of playing time

    • -       
    • Lack of enjoyment

    • -       
    • Injury

    • -       
    • Boredom

    • -       
    • Lack of support from significant others

    • -       
    • Dislike of the coach or his/her style (win at
    • all cost attitude)

    • -       
    • Pressure from parents

    • 4.     
    • Negative reasons have more impact and are more
    • important for younger or less experienced participants
  71. NOTE: Having fun is often cited as a motive but
    • it is suggested that the “FUN” is really the result of other
    • incentive motive fulfillment.
  72. IMPLICATIONS of goal setting
    • ·       
    • The coach or leader must deliberately increase
    • the opportunities for at least the major incentives to be satisfied.

    • ·       
    • To do so, he/she needs to engage in a process to
    • attempt to discover what incentives each participant brings to the
    • activity (IMI – Incentive Motivation Index)
  73. IMI Incentive Motivation Index
    • a)     
    • Affiliation:


    • -       
    • Place value on all roles

    • -       
    • Allow or plan social activities beyond  the sport setting

    • -       
    • Encourage mutual support and team unity
    • (cohesion)

    • b)     
    • Excellence:

    • -       
    • Help set realistic personal and group goals
    • relative to ability levels

    • -       
    • Provide for as much skill development as
    • possible (over learning by doing do repeatedly in practice)

    • c)     
    • Stress/Excitement:


    • -       
    • Provide variation and novelty in practice

    • -       
    • Give participants many challenging opportunities
    • and expectations

    • d)     
    • Status/Success:


    • -       
    • Don’t ever emphasize winning but don’t ignore
    • its importance

    • -       
    • Promote all roles, effort and performance

    • e)     
    • Fitness:

    • -       
    • Provide all participants with the opportunity to
    • be active and involved

    • -       
    • Conditioning is a valuable part of every
    • activity but don’t use as punishment 
  74. The Competitive
    Process (Martens, 1975)
    • ·       
    • Each individual experiments the competitive
    • process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the
    • same person.

    • ·       
    • The competitive process is primarily focused on social
    • evaluation (comparison with others or standards)

    • ·       
    • Linked stages often influenced by external
    • feedback and rewards
  75. The Competitive
    Process Diagram:
    • 1.     
    • The Objective Competitive Situation:

    • -       
    • Comparison criteria is known by others who can
    • evaluate performance

    • 2.     
    • Subjective Competitive Situation:

    • -       
    • How the person perceives the objective situation

    • -       
    • 3 Orientations:

    • a)     
    • Competitiveness

    • b)     
    • Win Oriented

    • c)     
    • Goal Oriented

    • -       
    • SOQ
    • (Gill, 1988) – Sport Orientation Questionnaire) 


    3.      Response:

    • -       
    • Approach/Avoid

    • -       
    • Behavioural – type of opponent (ex: weak, dominating
    • etc…)

    • -       
    • Physiological – arousal

    • -       
    • Psychological – internal and external factors

    • 4.     
    • Consequences:

    • -       
    • Positive or negative

    • -       
    • Perception of consequence

    • -       
    • Effects subsequent events
  76. The Competitive
    Process Diagram:
    **Inner Factors from
    Diagram**
    • a)     
    • Attitude: 


    • -       
    • Competitiveness is a learned behaviour and is
    • influenced by the social environment and varies in intensity by…

    • ·       
    • Culture

    • ·       
    • Personality

    • ·       
    • Age

    • b)     
    • Personality:

    • -       
    • Need for achievement – seek-out challenges where
    • success is in doubt (competition at its highest)

    • -       
    • Fear of failure – avoidance of competitive
    • situations

    • c)     
    • Ability:

    • -       
    • The relationship between ability and the
    • challenges of the task influence the competitive drive

    • -       
    • Competitiveness is strongest when participants
    • are relatively equal in ability.

    • -       
    • If unequal in ability the activity becomes
    • co-operative learning until more equal in ability

    • -       
    • Competitiveness is strongest if the participants
    • have high ability

    • -       
    • If low ability and made to compete; effort,
    • performance and interest are reduced.

    • d)     
    • Motives:

    • -       
    • Early success increases competitive drive while
    • early failure decreases it and either circumstances can influence the
    • participants motives for future competition

    • -       
    • Suggest more co-operative style games (rec.
    • leagues) at younger ages

    • -       
    • Wait until early teens for highly competitive
    • games and teams

    • -       
    • Insure some initial success if possible (i.e.
    • scheduling, controlled scrimmages, exhibition games)

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