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What are gametes?
sex cells (male and female reproductive cells)
What do the sperm and ovum provide?
What is a zygote?
- the production of fertilization
- a single cells that repeatedly divides until it becomes and infant
What are spermatoza?
What is the scrotum?
pouch of skin, inferior to perineum
What is the gubernaculum testis?
cord of connective tissue and muscle fibers that holds testes in place
What are the spermatic cords made of?
- layers of fascia
- tough connective tissue
What do the spermatic cords enclose?
blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics supplying the testes
When do the spermatic cords form?
during the descent of the testes
Why are inguinal hernias so common in men?
the spermatic cords create weak spots in the abdominal wall
What is the tunica vaginalis?
serous membrane that covers the outside of each testis and lines the scrotal cavity
What is the function of the tunica vaginalis?
reduce friction between opposing surfaces
What does the contraction of the dartos muscle cause?
the wrinkling of the scrotal surface and assists in elevation of the testes
What type of muscle tissue is the dartos muscle?
What is the function of the contraction of the cremaster muscle?
to tense the scrotum and pull them closer to the body
What is the temperature required for normal sperm development?
2 degrees F lower than the rest of the body
What is the main function of the cremaster muscle?
to move the testes away from or toward the body as needed to maintain accepatable testicular teperatures.
What is the tunica albuginea?
- DF layer around testes and covered by tunica vaginalis
- has collagen fibers that are continuous with the epididymis
What is the function mediastinum of the testis?
support the blood vessels and lymphatics supplying the testis and ducts that collect and transport sperm to epididymis
Where does sperm production occur?
in the seminiferous tubles
What are the functions of testosterone?
- maturation of spermatoza
- maintain accessory organs
- development of secondary sex traits
- growth and metabolism of body
- sex drive and sexual behavior
What is spermogenesis?
development of spermatoza
What are spermatogonia?
stem cells that develop as baby, but stay dormant until puberty, and then start to divide
What are the functions of nurse cells?
- maintain blood-testis barrier
- secrete inhibin
- secrete androgen-binding protein
What is the function of inhibin?
What are the regions of spermatozoon?
Describe the head of spermatozoon.
- has densely packed chromosomes
- ans acrosomal cap
What is the acrosomal cap?
membrane bound compartment with enzymes for fertilization
Describe the neck portion of spermatozoon.
- has centrioles of original spermatid
- spiraled mitochondria to move the tail
Describe the tail of the sperm.
- moves the cells from place to place
Describe the head of the epididymis.
recieves spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the meiastinum
describe the tail of the epididymis.
- reverses diretion
- sperm storage
What are the functions of the epididymis?
- monitor fluids of produced by seminiferous tubules
- recycling center for damaged spermatozoa
- stores spermatozoa
How do spermatozoon mature?
2 weeks through epididymis
How do spermatozoa become active?
they must undergo capacitation
What is capacitation?
when spermatozoa become active, motile, and fully functional
How does capacitation occur?
- spermatozoa become motile when mixed with secretions of seminal glands
- OR they become capable of sucessful fertilization when membrane permeability changes
What is in the walls of the vas deferens? function?
- smooth muscle
- contracts propel spermatozoafluid along tract
What are the functions of the vas deferens?
- transport sperm
- store sperm
What are the major functions of accessary glands of the male reproductive system?
- activate spermatozoa
- provide nutrients for motility
- produce buffers to counteract acidity of vagianl contents