thinking, problem solving, reasoning, and dreaming
Thinking involves the manipulation of three basic forms of thought, which are
images, concepts, and language
Forming oversized images of objects in one's mind
makes it easier to see the details of the object
A generlized idea representing a category of related objects or event are called
Concept formation refers to
organizing experiences into meaningful categories
Concepts that embrace a class of objects with one or more features in common ("and" concepts) are called
A concept defined by the presence of at least one of several possible features is a ___ concept.
An ideal model used as a prime example of a particular concept is a
The dictionary definition of a wod is its ___ meaning.
Emotional judements are part of the ___ meaning of a word or concept.
Language must provide ___ that stand for objects and ideas.
The basic speech sounds of a language are called
___ are the smallest meaningful units of speech, such as syllables or words.
The complete set of rules for a language that determines how to make sounds into words and words into sentences is called
The rules that determine how words in a language can be put together to make sentences are called
A learned set of rules that always lead to a correct solution is known as
Heuristics are problem-solving strategies which
reduce the number of alternatives
After working to solve a problem for three hours, Larry has just about "giving up" until he suddenly realizes the "perfect" solution and wonders why he did not think of it sooner. Larry has just experienced
a barrier to problem solving
The inability to see new uses for familiar objects is termed
When a person of limited intelligence shows exceptional abilities in art, music, mental arithmetic, or calendar calculations, it is called
If a person receives approximately the same score when taking the same test on different occasions, the test is considered
If a test measures what is says it measures, then it is said to be
When the same procedures are used in giving a test to all people, the test has been
IQ may be defined as
A deviation IQ represents a person's
relative standing in a group based on mental test performance
Terman showed that mentally gifted children, in general,
are generally successful in their chosen occupation as adults
Mental retardation is formally defined by deficiencies in
IQ and adaptive behaviors
People with IQs between 55 and 70 are described as
Motivation is defined as
internal mechanisms which begin, maintain, and direct behavior
Desirable goals may motivate behavior in the absence of internal need. This property is known as a goal's
Biological needs that must be met for survival are called ___ motives.
Needs for activity, exploration, manipulation, and physical contact are referred to as ___ motives.
Biological drives are essential because they maintain ___, a steady state of bodily equilibrium.
Which area of the brain contains both the feeding center and the satiety center?
Electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamus will cause a rat to
If the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat's hypothalamus is destroyed, the rat will
eat until it becomes obese
A chemical called ___ is released by the intestines and causes eating to cease.
When people put on weight, their fat cells release a substance called ___, which is carried in the bloodstream to the brain, where it will tell us to eat less.
Which of the following tends to encourage overeating in the U.S.?
all of these
the convenience food industry enourages people to eat faster
restaurant foods have high sugar or fat content
larger food portion are served in US restaurants
is characterized by all of these
refers to repeated weight loss and gain
tends to slow down the body's metabolism
actually makes it harder to lose weight when dieting and easier to regain weight when the dieting ends
Sharon is striving to gain a sense of unity with the universe and a higher level of understanding and to become the best person possible. According to the humanistic psychologists, Sharon would be striving for
Intrinsic motivation occurs when
there is no obvious external reward for one's behavior
characterized by all of these
linked to many basic adaptive behaviors that aid survival
characterized by physiological arousal
characterized by changes in facial expression, gestures, and posture
Which element of emotion is the private, subjective experiences of having an emotion?
Preparation of the body for fighting or fleeing is the function of the
sympathetic nervous system
Which of the following best describes the relationship of the parasympathetic nervous system?
the parasympathetic system reverses the responses stimulated by the sympathetic system
Darwin considered human emotional expression
an adaptive means of communicating one's feeling to others
An ___ smile involves not only the mouth, but also the small muscles around the eyes.
The-cross cultural research conducted by Paul Ekman has revealed that
some expressions, such as happiness and fear, are universal
Which theory holds that we are afraid because we run, or are angry because we strike?
Which theory claims that emotions are organized in the brain and that emotional feelings and bodily expressions occur simultaneously?
the Cannon-Bard theory
Schachter's cognitive theory of emotion emphasizes
the combined effects of physical arousal and emotional labels
According to psychologists who support the feedback hypothesis of emotion, if you want to be happy, you should