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2012-12-14 10:08:55
okstate ecology

Material for the 2012 Ecology Final at Oklahoma State University
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  1. Albedo
    the reflected light from a surface; high albedo means high reflection
  2. The rate of known extinctions of species during the past century is how many times higher than the extinction rate calculated from the fossil record?
  3. Resevoirs of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Carbon
    • Phosphorus: sedimentary rock
    • Nitrogen: atmosphere
    • Carbon: ocean/biomass
  4. Phosphorus pollution of lakes
    • primarily from detergents
    • leads to increased productivity, allowing more parasitic worms to survive. 
    • Parasitic worms then infect frog limb buds, causing deformities.
  5. Hadley cells
    • about 30 degrees North and South of the equator
    • cause arid climates (subtropical desert)
  6. The Ecospheres
    • lithosphere
    • hydrosphere
    • biosphere
    • atmosphere
  7. Soil Horizons in Order (surfact to bottom)
    • O
    • E
    • R
    • B
    • C
    • A
  8. Cohesion-tension Theory
    • water is pulled through the xylem to the tops of plants 
    • transpiration creates a pulling force
    • bonding between water molecules makes them follow the molecule before them up the gradient.
  9. Macronutrients
    • O
    • C
    • N
    • P
    • K
    • S
    • Ca
    • Mg
    • Fe
    • Na
  10. Micronutrients
    • Cu
    • Zn
    • Mn
    • Se
  11. Hyperosmotic
    • internal salt concentration higher than that of medium
    • ex. freshwater fish
  12. Hypoosmotic
    • internal salt concentration lower than that of medium
    • ex. marine fish
  13. Abdiabatic cooling
    decrease in temperature with increasing elevation
  14. Consequences of El Nino
    • drought in tropics
    • increased precip in north-temperate regions
    • decreased hurricans in N Atlantic
  15. Consequences of La Nina
    • heavy rainfall
    • drought in north-temperate regions
    • increased hurricane activity in N Atlantic
  16. author of textbook
    Robert Ricklefs
  17. How can human activity alter the nitrogen cycle?
    • by increasing nitrogen deposition in the following ways:
    • cultivation of legumes
    • fertilizing
    • combustion of fossil fuels
  18. Dentrification
    nitrogen fixation
  19. Nitrification
    oxidation of mitrogen (ammonia -> nitrite -> nitrate)
  20. Consequences of an altered nitrogen cycle for terrestrial ecosystems
    • increased plant productivity
    • decreased plant diversity (shit to nitrogen needy plants)
  21. Lake Stratification
    • turnover usally occurs in Spring
    • in Summer, lake stratifies, stopping vertical mixing.  
    • Layers: Epilimnion (upper layer) rich with O2, low nutrients and Hypolimnion (bottom) rich with nutrients, low O2
  22. 4 components of soil
    • minerals
    • organic materials
    • air pockets
    • water
  23. Podsolization
    • breakdown and removal of clay from the acid soils of cold, moist regions (taiga)
    • mostly occurs in cold regions where needle-leaved trees predominate. 
  24. Laterization
    • breakdown of clay leads to leaching of silica.
    • creates red dirt
    • common in tropics
  25. What causes variation in the Manua Loa curve?
    uptake of CO2 by plants is higher int he summer than the winter, thus there is less CO2 in the atmosphere during the summer.
  26. Aquatic nutrient regeneration
    • occurs primarily anaeobically
    • slowest regeneration
    • baceteria have an important role.
  27. Terrestrial nutrient regneration
    • occurs primarily aerobically 
    • decompostion usually occurs very close to the source of primary productivity 
    • bacteria play an important role.
  28. A. G. Tansley
    introducted the inclusion of abiotic environments.
  29. Lindeman
    came up with pyramid of energy
  30. A. J. Latka
    considered ecosystems as energy transforming systems that obey the laws of thermodynamics.
  31. First Law of Thermodynamics
    conservation of energy
  32. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • entropy
    • closed systems tends toward disorder
    • energy is lost through heat
  33. GPP
    • gross primary production
    • production by producers
  34. NPP
    • NPP = GPP - R
    • NPP is net primary production
    • R is respiration
  35. Manua Loa Curve
    longest record of CO2 fluxuation 
  36. Origin of Speices
    • Charles Darwin
    • 1859
  37. Ansiogamy
    two dissimilar gametes 
  38. Annual v Perennial 
    • Annual survives one year
    • perennial survives multiple
  39. b
    birth rate
  40. Bateman effect
    females determine reproduction (they are the limiting resource because they have to invest more energy than the male)
  41. d
  42. Which type of natural selection allows the bearer to gain more mates
    sexual selection
  43. Equation for exponential growth
    dN/dt = rN
  44. Feeding behavior in which costs are minimized while benefits are maximized
    optimal foraging
  45. The number of individuals a given individual actually produces during its whole life
  46. The phenomenon in which an individual leaves its home population, goes elsewehre, and ends up breeding there
    • gene flow
    • emigration
  47. Genotypes
    • homozygous
    • heterozygous
  48. A type of social organization in which animals are ranked in status that gives them an order of priority to limiting resources
    dominance hierarchy
  49. Natural selection is both
    random and deterministic 
  50. An S curve is
  51. dy/dx is
    the change in y over an infinitely small change in x
  52. Coefficient of relatedness
    • r bar
    • .5 for siblings
  53. Dear Enemy Phenomenon
    residents are less aggressive toward their neighbors than toward strangers 
  54. Symbol for a number of survivors at age x
    l sub x
  55. Semelparous
    individual reproduces once then dies
  56. Iteroparous
    individuals reproduce multiple times over their life cycles.
  57. Epigamic selection
    females accept males with certain traits.
  58. Intrasexual selection
    males compete, winner gets to breed.
  59. Tail Autotomy
    severing of tail to escape
  60. Suvivorship Curves
  61. Term for the phemomenon in landscape ecology in which a somewhat isolated subpopulation may receive immigrants such that the subpopulation does not go locally extinct.
    rescue effect
  62. Symbol for net reproductive rate of a population
  63. Term for what happens when r exceeds 3 in a discrete-time model of logistic growth
  64. Indirect Mutualism 
    two species compete with a third but not each other.
  65. Endemic
    • a species that lives in only one region 
    • highest in hotpots
  66. Biodiversity hotspot
    • an area with high biodiversity
    • conservation efforts should be centered here
    • there are 25 hotspots
  67. Types of Extinction 
    • background
    • anthropogenic 
    • mass
  68. biodiversity effect on disease transmission
    decreases diseases
  69. An area with high endemism
    has a high number of endemic species.
  70. Community 
    • a group of interacting species 
    • a group of species that live in the same area
  71. Holistic (Clements)
    • the community functions as a superorganism
    • distinct boundaries 
    • coevolution important
  72. Individualistic (Gleason)
    • the community is a chance associate of species, living together under the particular conditions of a particular place.
    • No distinct boundaries 
    • coincidence
  73. Intermidiate 
    • coevolution
    • lacks boundaries 
    • some attributes come from species interaction 
    • communities may assemble haphazardly 
  74. Ecotones
    regions of rapid replacement of species along an environmental gradient
  75. Gradient analysis
    • measure the abundance of species and physical conditions at a number of locations within a landscape
    • plots species abundances as a function of the environmental gradient.
  76. Components of community stability 
    • Constancy: ability of a community to resist change when faced with environmental pertubation
    • Resilience: ability of community to return to earlier state following disturbance.
  77. Trophic cascade
    influence of consumers or producers on populations that are 2 or more tropic levels removed.
  78. Top-down control (trophic cascade)
    influence of predators on the sizes of the trophic levels below them in the food web.
  79. Bottom-up Control
    influence of producers on the sizes of the trophic levels about them in the food web.
  80. ball-and-cup-diagram
    • valleys are stable 
    • ball = community 
    • surface = community types
  81. Facilitation 
    • a mechanism of succession 
    • enhancement of a population of one speices by the activities of another
    • important in early sucession
  82. Inhibition 
    • a mechanism of sucession 
    • the suppression of a colonizing population by another that is already established.
  83. Tolerance 
    • a mechanism of sucession 
    • the indifference of establishment of one species to the presence of others
  84. Transient climax
    Climax community that develops in a temporary habitat, such as a vernal pool or carcass of a dead animal.
  85. Cyclic Climaxes
    • Develop where each species becomes
    • established only in association with some other species