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the reflected light from a surface; high albedo means high reflection
The rate of known extinctions of species during the past century is how many times higher than the extinction rate calculated from the fossil record?
Resevoirs of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Carbon
- Phosphorus: sedimentary rock
- Nitrogen: atmosphere
- Carbon: ocean/biomass
Phosphorus pollution of lakes
- primarily from detergents
- leads to increased productivity, allowing more parasitic worms to survive.
- Parasitic worms then infect frog limb buds, causing deformities.
- about 30 degrees North and South of the equator
- cause arid climates (subtropical desert)
Soil Horizons in Order (surfact to bottom)
- water is pulled through the xylem to the tops of plants
- transpiration creates a pulling force
- bonding between water molecules makes them follow the molecule before them up the gradient.
- internal salt concentration higher than that of medium
- ex. freshwater fish
- internal salt concentration lower than that of medium
- ex. marine fish
decrease in temperature with increasing elevation
Consequences of El Nino
- drought in tropics
- increased precip in north-temperate regions
- decreased hurricans in N Atlantic
Consequences of La Nina
- heavy rainfall
- drought in north-temperate regions
- increased hurricane activity in N Atlantic
author of textbook
How can human activity alter the nitrogen cycle?
- by increasing nitrogen deposition in the following ways:
- cultivation of legumes
- combustion of fossil fuels
oxidation of mitrogen (ammonia -> nitrite -> nitrate)
Consequences of an altered nitrogen cycle for terrestrial ecosystems
- increased plant productivity
- decreased plant diversity (shit to nitrogen needy plants)
- turnover usally occurs in Spring
- in Summer, lake stratifies, stopping vertical mixing.
- Layers: Epilimnion (upper layer) rich with O2, low nutrients and Hypolimnion (bottom) rich with nutrients, low O2
4 components of soil
- organic materials
- air pockets
- breakdown and removal of clay from the acid soils of cold, moist regions (taiga)
- mostly occurs in cold regions where needle-leaved trees predominate.
- breakdown of clay leads to leaching of silica.
- creates red dirt
- common in tropics
What causes variation in the Manua Loa curve?
uptake of CO2 by plants is higher int he summer than the winter, thus there is less CO2 in the atmosphere during the summer.
Aquatic nutrient regeneration
- occurs primarily anaeobically
- slowest regeneration
- baceteria have an important role.
Terrestrial nutrient regneration
- occurs primarily aerobically
- decompostion usually occurs very close to the source of primary productivity
- bacteria play an important role.
A. G. Tansley
introducted the inclusion of abiotic environments.
came up with pyramid of energy
A. J. Latka
considered ecosystems as energy transforming systems that obey the laws of thermodynamics.
First Law of Thermodynamics
conservation of energy
Second Law of Thermodynamics
- closed systems tends toward disorder
- energy is lost through heat
- gross primary production
- production by producers
- NPP = GPP - R
- NPP is net primary production
- R is respiration
Manua Loa Curve
longest record of CO2 fluxuation
two dissimilar gametes
Annual v Perennial
- Annual survives one year
- perennial survives multiple
females determine reproduction (they are the limiting resource because they have to invest more energy than the male)
Which type of natural selection allows the bearer to gain more mates
Equation for exponential growth
dN/dt = rN
Feeding behavior in which costs are minimized while benefits are maximized
The number of individuals a given individual actually produces during its whole life
The phenomenon in which an individual leaves its home population, goes elsewehre, and ends up breeding there
A type of social organization in which animals are ranked in status that gives them an order of priority to limiting resources
Natural selection is both
random and deterministic
the change in y over an infinitely small change in x
Coefficient of relatedness
Dear Enemy Phenomenon
residents are less aggressive toward their neighbors than toward strangers
Symbol for a number of survivors at age x
l sub x
individual reproduces once then dies
individuals reproduce multiple times over their life cycles.
females accept males with certain traits.
males compete, winner gets to breed.
severing of tail to escape
Term for the phemomenon in landscape ecology in which a somewhat isolated subpopulation may receive immigrants such that the subpopulation does not go locally extinct.
Symbol for net reproductive rate of a population
Term for what happens when r exceeds 3 in a discrete-time model of logistic growth
two species compete with a third but not each other.
- a species that lives in only one region
- highest in hotpots
- an area with high biodiversity
- conservation efforts should be centered here
- there are 25 hotspots
Types of Extinction
biodiversity effect on disease transmission
An area with high endemism
has a high number of endemic species.
- a group of interacting species
- a group of species that live in the same area
- the community functions as a superorganism
- distinct boundaries
- coevolution important
- the community is a chance associate of species, living together under the particular conditions of a particular place.
- No distinct boundaries
- lacks boundaries
- some attributes come from species interaction
- communities may assemble haphazardly
regions of rapid replacement of species along an environmental gradient
- measure the abundance of species and physical conditions at a number of locations within a landscape
- plots species abundances as a function of the environmental gradient.
Components of community stability
- Constancy: ability of a community to resist change when faced with environmental pertubation
- Resilience: ability of community to return to earlier state following disturbance.
influence of consumers or producers on populations that are 2 or more tropic levels removed.
Top-down control (trophic cascade)
influence of predators on the sizes of the trophic levels below them in the food web.
influence of producers on the sizes of the trophic levels about them in the food web.
- valleys are stable
- ball = community
- surface = community types
- a mechanism of succession
- enhancement of a population of one speices by the activities of another
- important in early sucession
- a mechanism of sucession
- the suppression of a colonizing population by another that is already established.
- a mechanism of sucession
- the indifference of establishment of one species to the presence of others
Climax community that develops in a temporary habitat, such as a vernal pool or carcass of a dead animal.
- Develop where each species becomes
- established only in association with some other species