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What is starvation?
- The physiological condition that arises as a consequence of prolonged insufficient food consumption
- Can be pysiological or pathological
What is protein-energy malnutrition?
The disease caused by pathological starvation
What are some clinical features of PEM?
- Reduced body weight
- Muscle wasting and decrased strength
- Reduced respiratory and cardiac muscular capacity
- Skin thinning
- Decrased metabolicm rate
Whata are the adaptive mechanisms for PEM?
- Greatly reduced skeletal muscle mass
- Decreased heart muscle mass
- Decreased respiratory muscle mass
- Decreased protein reserve
What is a successful adaptation to starvation?
- The cessation of loss of body substance despite continued food deprivation
- Cessation of weight loss implies: cessation of fatt loss from the body, cessation of lean tissue loss from the body
How is resting energy expenditure reduced during starvation?
- Reduced mass of metabolically active tissue (slow, weeks)
- Reduced energy expenditure per unit active tissue (fast, days)
How is non-restin energy expenditure reduced during starvation?
- Reduced work of moving
- Reduction of voluntary movements
How is protein requirement reduced during starvation?
- Diminished lean tissue mass
- More efficient retention of dietary protein
- Lean tissue mass stabilizes despite continued low protein intake
What is vitamin D made of?