Nutrition- Malnutrition

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  1. What is starvation?
    • The physiological condition that arises as a consequence of prolonged insufficient food consumption
    • Can be pysiological or pathological
  2. What is protein-energy malnutrition?
    The disease caused by pathological starvation
  3. What are some clinical features of PEM?
    • Reduced body weight
    • Muscle wasting and decrased strength
    • Reduced respiratory and cardiac muscular capacity
    • Skin thinning
    • Decrased metabolicm rate
    • Hypothermia
    • Apathy
    • Edema
    • Immunodeficiency
  4. Whata are the adaptive mechanisms for PEM?
    • Greatly reduced skeletal muscle mass
    • Decreased heart muscle mass
    • Decreased respiratory muscle mass
    • Decreased protein reserve
    • Hypertension
    • Bradycardia
    • Hypothermia
  5. What is a successful adaptation to starvation?
    • The cessation of loss of body substance despite continued food deprivation
    • Cessation of weight loss implies: cessation of fatt loss from the body, cessation of lean tissue loss from the body
  6. How is resting energy expenditure reduced during starvation?
    • Reduced mass of metabolically active tissue (slow, weeks)
    • Reduced energy expenditure per unit active tissue (fast, days)
  7. How is non-restin energy expenditure reduced during starvation?
    • Reduced work of moving
    • Reduction of voluntary movements
  8. How is protein requirement reduced during starvation?
    • Diminished lean tissue mass
    • More efficient retention of dietary protein
    • Lean tissue mass stabilizes despite continued low protein intake
  9. What is vitamin D made of?
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Nutrition- Malnutrition
2012-12-09 20:21:49

Hoffer Lecture
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