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2012-12-09 16:20:37
Rua Notes Nutrition Macronutrients

Macronutrients notes and questions
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  1. Why is good nutrition important?
    • 1) For performance
    • 2) For health / avoid disease
    • 3) For optimal body compisition
  2. What are the four macronutrients?
    • 1) ProteinĀ (coming from the Greek word meaning 'the first')
    • 2) Carbohydrates
    • 3) Fat / Lipids
    • 4) Alcohol
  3. What are the smaller units of protein called?
    Amino acids
  4. What would the result of a no/very low protein diet be?
    Degradation of bodies tissues (extreme case = death)
  5. How many essential amino acids are there?
  6. Why are Essential Amino Acids 'essential'?
    Because they are the ones from which the body can produce other aminos, but which it cannot produce itself.
  7. What are Conditionally Essential Amino Acids?
    They only become 'essential' under certain conditions eg. glutamine is conditionally essential in times of physcial stress - exercise.
  8. What are the main roles / features of protein?
    • 1) Taken as 4kcal per gram.
    • 2) Used to repair and build tissue.
    • 3) Important in immune health.
    • 4) Important to hormonal balance.
    • 5) 5-10% of energy in low-medium intesity exercise comes from oxidised amino acids.
  9. Carbohydrates
    The term carbohydrate refers to a number of different organic compounds ranging from simple sugars, to disaccharides and all the way up to starches (long chains of individual carbohydrate molecules bound together). Give two examples of each.
    • Simple Sugars
    • 1) Glucose
    • 2) Fructose

    • Disaccharides
    • 1) Sucrose
    • 2) Lactose

    • Starches
    • 1) Potato
    • 2) Rice
  10. Becasue of is chemical structure what will you often see carbohydrate abbreviated as?
    CHO (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen)
  11. What are the main roles / features of Carbohydrates?
    • 1) 4kcal per gram traditionally assigned.
    • 2) Traditional food pyramid is very high in carbs.
    • 3) Carbohydrates primarily broken down into glucose to be stored as glycogen in the muscle.
    • 4) Non-essential - can be synthesised in the body from amino acids, glycerol and lactate - gluconeogenesis. In low carb conditions body preferentially burns fats and ketones.
    • 5) Starchy carbs casue an insulin spike eimilar to that of sugars. They are usually the culprit (along with sugars) in the Western diet when it comes to obesity despite the villification of fats.
    • 6) Fibrous carbs (non-root vegetables) contain little digestible carbs Vs. starches meaning they are more nutritionally dense per calorie.
    • 7) Root vegetables considered as starchy carbs.
  12. Fats / Lipids
    Dietary cholestrol only has a SMALL effect on blood cholestrol as it has to be resynthesised in the body after breakdown. Why is cholestrol important in the diet?
    Cholestrol plays a number of roles in the body no the least of which is involvement in the structure of cell membranes. As well, cholestrol provides the 'base' for the steroid hormones, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone and others are synthesised out of cholestrol in the body.
  13. What are the main roles / features of Fat?
    • 1) 9kcal per gram
    • 2) Primary role of dietary fats in the body is for energy.
    • 3) Involved in the production of various hormones.
    • 4) Important for immune function.
    • 5) Passive energy store - hugely effecient
    • 6) The only bad fats are trans fats.
  14. What are the main roles / features of Alcohol?
    • 1) 7 kcal per gram.
    • 2) Stalls protein synthesis.
    • 3) Delays aerobic metabolism.
    • 4) Depressed CNS (central nervous system)
    • 5) Suppressed testosterone production.
  15. How do you lose weight?
    Create caloric deficit.
  16. How do you gain weight?
    Create caloric surplus.
  17. What is obesity?
    • 25% bodyfat or higher in men.
    • 30% bodyfat in women.
    • BMI of 30 or greater.
  18. What classes being overweight?
    Excess body weight relative to height but not obese (BMI 25 - 29.9)
  19. What is Lean Body Mass?
    The remainder of someones body mass when fat has been subtracted.
  20. What is Body Fat Distribution?
    The specific pattern in which body fat is deposited in different areas of the body.
  21. What are the main barriers to fat loss?
    • 1) Undiagnosed allergies or food intolerance.
    • 2) You are not in deficit.
    • 3) Your deficit is too high and your body is storing as much as possible.
    • 4) Medications may be stalling fat loss.
    • 5) Inadequate hydration is preventing release of waste products / toxins.
    • 6) Carbohydrate intake may be too high.