Micro I Exam 1

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Micro I Exam 1
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2012-12-13 15:29:02
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Bacterial Anatomy
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Micro I Exam 1 Bacterial Anatomy
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  1. the study of all living organisms  both plant & animal
    biology
  2. the study  of animal life
    zoology
  3. the study of plant life
    botany
  4. the study  of  microorganisms  & their effects on other organisms
    Microbiology
  5. any plant or animal that must be  studied using a microscope
    microorganisms
  6. the study of single   celled animals

    includes the study  of parasites that xause malaria and amoebic dysentery
    protozoology
  7. the lowest division of the animal kingdom
    single celled animals
  8. the study of the microorganisms called bactera
    bacteriology
  9. bacteria
    • a group of organisms that:
    •   are single celled
    •   lack a nuclear membrane
    •   do not contain chlorophyl
    •   may be able to move about independently
    •   reproduce by an asexual  process called binary fusion
  10. do not have anc organized  nuclear body within  a membrane

    only  blue-green algae share this characteristic
    procaryotic
  11. those that have a well-defined or "true" nucleus with a nuclear membrane
    eucaryotic
  12. the study of  fungi
    mycology
  13. single-celled eucaryotic organisms

    reproduce by budding
    yeasts
  14. multi-cellular  eucaryotic organisms 

    reproduce by condia  or zygote  formation
    molds
  15. the study of rickettsia
    rickettsiology
  16. small,  obligate intracellular parasites

    cause disease characterized by fever and skin rashes

    they are  transmitted to humans by lice, fleas, mites, and/or tics
    rickettsia
  17. the study of viruses
    virology
  18. contaiin only one type of nucleic acid
        either RNA or DNA
        non-cellular
    viruses
  19. they have a protein coat

    because they are non-cellular, they are obligate intracellular parasites

    they  require an electron microscope to be seen

    they depend on host  survival in order  to survive
       most cause mild infections that do not lead to death
    viruses
  20. the study of immunity
    immunology
  21. the condition in which protection, either natural or acquired, is obtained aginst disease causing agents
    immunity
  22. studies the relative  resistance or susceptibility of an individual to disease

       can be accomplished by the study of antigen-antibody reactions
    immunology
  23. causes:
       amoebic dysentary
       malaria
       giardiases
    prtozoa
  24. causes:
       pyogenic diseases
       enteric diseases
       acid-fast diseases
       spore formin diseses
    bacteria
  25. causes:
       primary atypical pneumonia
    mycoplasms
  26. causes:
       typhus fevers
       rocky mountain spotted fever
       Q fever
    rickettsia
  27. causes:
        trachoma
        lymphogranuloma venereum
        psittacosis
        non-gonococcal  urethritis
    chlamydis
  28. causes:
      diseases of the skin
          measeles
          chicken pox
          shingles
    viruses
  29. causes:
        diseases of the lungs
           common cold
           influenza
    viruses
  30. causes:
       diseases of the nerves
           rabies
           encephalitis
    viruses
  31. causes:
       diseases of viscera
           hepatitis
           yellow fever
    viruses
  32. causes:
        diseases of the glands
            mumps
    viruses
  33. causes:
       thrush or candidiasis
       vaginal yeast infection
       pneumonia of AIDS
    yeasts

    fungi
  34. causes:
        dermatomycoses
        systemic mycoses
    molds

    fungi
  35. "slow-virus" disease - creutzfeld-jacob diseases
    prion
  36. naming of bacteria is accomplished by using a system called
    binomial nomenclature
  37. developed by botanist carolus Linnaeus
    binomial nomenclature
  38. provides a first name called a genus
    binomial nomenclature
  39. provides a second name called a species
    binomial nomenclature
  40. the genus is always capitalized and the species is not capitalized
    binomial nomenclature
  41. the name should always be either italicized or underlined when referred to in text
    binomial nomenclature
  42. this system is a part of s system that ranks all living organisms according to primarily morphological and physilogical characteristics
    binomial nomenclature
  43. Binomial Nomenclature can be seen in "Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology" in the following order:
    • Kingdom
    •    Phylum or Division
    •       Class
    •          Order
    •             Family
    •                Genus
    •                   Species
  44. Refers to the size, shape, and arrangement of cells
    morphology of bacteria
  45. standard units of measurement - inches or millimeters - are ineffective in measuring bacteria because they are much too large
    Size
  46. the most often used unit of measurement
    micrometer (uM)
  47. one millionth of a meter

    1/1000th of a millimeter

    1/25,400th of an inch
    micrometer (uM)
  48. average length of protozoa
    100 uM
  49. average length of molds
    40 uM
  50. average length of bacteria
    1-20 uM
  51. average length of rickettsia & mycoplasmas
    0.4 uM
  52. average length of viruses
    0.01 uM
  53. spherical or round cell
    coccus shape
  54. rod shape or cylindrical
    bacillus
  55. a twisted, curved or corkscrew shaped cell

    can be broken down into three subdivisions
    spiral
  56. curved or comma shaped
    vibrio
  57. a spiral shape that remains rigid when in motion
    spirillum
  58. a spiral shape that bends when in motion
    spirochete
  59. refers to the distinct arrangements that are formed when cells cling together after cell division has occurred
    cellular arrangements
  60. the most divers bacterial shape for arrangement
    cocci
  61. two coccus shaped cells clinging together
    diplococci
  62. three or more cocci forming a cluster
    staphylococci
  63. three or more cocci forming a chain
    streptococci
  64. a grouping of four coccus cells
    tetrads
  65. a cubical packet of eight coccus cells
    sarcinae
  66. two rod shaped cells forming a pair
    diplobacillus
  67. three or more bacilli attached end to end to form a chain
    streptobacillus
  68. least diverse

    they occur only as single units
    spirals
  69. it is responsible for maintaining the size and shape of a living cell

    serves as a reference point for describing the location of other cell parts

    serves as the reference point for the "Gram Stain"
         a differential stain for bacteria
    cell wall
  70. found just inside the cell wall

    a semipermeable membrane

    controls the osmosis of substances into and out of the cell

    acts as an osmotic barrier

    allows for secretory and excretory functions
    cell membrane
  71. found only in those bacteria able to produce it

    it is a slimy, mucilaginous (geletin like) coating outside of the cell wall

    protects the cell
         by acting as a buffer against harmful chemicals
         by resisting dehydration

    increases virulence of the cell
               makes it better able to cause disease
         by inhibiting or retarding phagocytosis
         by helping the cell to attach to surfaces
    capsule
  72. the semifluid inside a cell
         material in which many physiologic functions take place
         the location of many of the organelles of a cell
    cytoplasm
  73. aids the cell in reproduction by seperating the new copies of DNA

    serves as the location of the enzymes necessary for bacterial respiration
          part of the metabolism process
    mesosome
  74. location of the bacterial DNA

    functions as the brain of the cell
        carries the inheritable characteristics of the cell
        controls metabolism

    there is no membrane around the nuclear body of bacterial cells
        the nuclear material is scattered and loosely diffused throughout the cell
    nuclear body
  75. serves as a source of protection when environmental conditions are not favorable for survival or growth
         such as in conditions of heat, drying, poor nutrient supply, & chemical exposure

    only two genera of bacteria are capable of forming spores
         bacillus & clostridium
    endospore
  76. under adverse conditions the cell will be stimulated to form an endospore
    a process called sporulation
  77. when the conditions for growth improve, the endospore will then convert into a living, growing, vegetative cell
    a process called germination
  78. genera that are able to form spores include the species that cause:
    • tetanus
    • botulism
    • gas gangrene
    • anthrax
    • tissue gas in the dead
  79. spore-forming bacteria are able to survive under conditions that would kill most bacteria
    endospore
  80. normal procedures of disinfection and sterilization are often not sufficient to control the growth of these organisms
    endospore
  81. sometimes called granules

    serve as a storage place for food reserves or as an accumulation point for substances formed in excess of the immediate needs of the cell
    inclusion bodies
  82. the site of protein synthesis

    it builds the proteins that are necessary for cell growth and metabolism
    ribosomes
  83. these are found external of the cell wall

    they provide motility for the cell

    nnot all bacteria have them
    flagella
  84. also known as fimbriae
    Pili
  85. found externally but extend through the cell wall to attach to the cell membrane
    pili
  86. serve as a mechanism of attachment of the cell to a surface
          enhances the ability for colonization and infection
    pili
  87. this allows the bacterium ______________ to attach to the urethra rather than be washed away?
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    pili
  88. serves to mediate a form of sexual reproduction utilized by bacteria
    pili
  89. a form of sexual reproduction utilized by bacteria
    a process called conjugation
  90. singular form of pili
    pilus
  91. What other organism besides bacteria are prokaryotic?
    blue-green algae
  92. How do yeasts reproduce?
    budding
  93. How do molds reproduce? (2)
    • condia
    • or
    • zygote formation

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