Pathophysiology of Diseases.

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Author:
Bykan
ID:
188200
Filename:
Pathophysiology of Diseases.
Updated:
2012-12-10 16:12:04
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Skin
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Description:
Diseases of the Integumentary System
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  1. What are the functions of the skin?
    • Protective wrap
    • Regulates temperature
    • Senses pain
    • Keeps substances and microorganisms from entering the body
    • Provides a shield from the harmful effects of the sun
    • Indicates malfunction within the body through color changes
  2. How does the skin indicates malfunction within the body through color changes?
    • Cyanosis: blue coloration of the skin in the extremities signals a lack of O2, indicating a cardiovascular or pulmonary problem. 
    • Jaundice: indicates liver disease, bile obstruction, or hemolysis of RBCs. 
    •  Abnormal redness accompanies polycythemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, and fever.  
    • Pallor, or whitening of the skin, might indicate anemia.
  3. Melanocytes
    cells at the bottom of the epidermis that produce melanin
  4. Hypopigmentation
    an abnormally low amount or absence of melanin.
  5. Composed of connective tissue that supports blood and lymph vessels, elastic fibers, nerves, hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous or oil glands
    Dermis
  6. Lies under the dermis and connects the skin to underlying structures.
    Subcutaneous tissue
  7. Usually accompany lesions and are helpful in making a diagnosis
    Pruritis (itching), edema (swelling), erythema (redness), and inflammation
  8. Revealing characteristics of skin lesions
    size, shape, color, location, and presence or absence of other signs and symptoms.
  9. Diagnostic Procedures for Skin Diseases
    • Visual examination
    • Culture of scrapings for to identifies antibodies and causes
    • Complete medical history
    • Sensitivity testing or blood test for antibodies
    • Biopsie to identify tumors or skin cancer
  10. What type of biopsies can be performed to diagnose bening tumors or skin cancer?
    Punch, incisional and total excisional
  11. A discolored spot on the skin, caused by hyperactive melanocytes secreting excess melanin. 
    Macule or freckle or ephelide. 
  12. A small, elevated, circumscribed lession of the skin that is filled with pus; varicella (chickenpox)
    Pustule
  13. A localized, evanescent elevation of the skin that is often accompanied by itchin; urticaria.
    Wheal
  14. An eating or gnawing away of tissue
    Erosion or ulcer; decubitus ulcer
  15. A solid, circumsribed, elevated area on the skin; pimple
    Papule
  16. A dry, serous or seropurulent, brown, yellow, red or green exudation that is seen in secondary lessions
    Crust; exzema
  17. A larger papule
    Nodule; acne vulgaris
  18. A thin, dry flake or cornified epithelial cells
    Scale; psoriasis
  19. A small fluid filled sac; blister
    Vesicle
  20. Large vesicle
    Bulla
  21. A crack-like sore or slit that extends through the epidermis in the dermis
    Fissure; athlete's foot
  22. Spreading infection of the skin that is most often caused by Streptococci
    Cellulitis
  23. Infection which is common on the legs and begins with skin damage. Involved area is generally swollen, red, and tender.
    Cellulitis
  24. What are the symptoms of cellulitis
    Fever and chills
  25. A superficial infection of the hair follicles characterized by erythema and follicular-based papules and pustules caused by infection with Staphylococci.
    Folliculitis
  26. Who does folliculitis commonly affect, and which area of the body?
    Occurs in young men and affects thighs, buttocks, breard and scalpe.
  27. Treatment for folliculitis
    Daily cleansing with an antiseptic soap, severe cases require treatment with oral antibiotics.
  28. Boils that are a deeper infection of the hair follicle.
    Furuncles
  29. Clusters of furuncles or boils. Lesions arise in a cluster of hair follicles. Develop and heal more slowly than boils. Appear mostly in men and are commonly located theback of the neck.
    Carbuncles
  30. Caused by viruses affecting the keratinocytes of the skin, causing them to proliferate
    Warts or verucca vulgaris
  31. Who and which part of the body do warts commonly affect?
    Children and young adults. Particularly on the hands.
  32. How can warts be removed?
    By a physician via surgery, cryosurgery or laser.
  33. Grows inward. Pressure on the soles of the feet makes them
    very painful, and they are often difficult to remove permanently.
    Plantar warts.
  34. A small, dark skin growth that develops from pigment-producing cells or melanocytes which may become malignant.
    Nevus or mole (benign tumor)
  35. Warning signs of malignant melanoma
    Sudden changes in moles such as enlargement with an irregular border, darkening, inflammation, and bleeding.
  36. How can a malignant mole be removed?
    Excision or cryosurgery. 
  37. A benign tumor made of small blood vessels that form a red or purple birthmark.
    Hemangioma
  38. A dark red to purple birthmark that occurs in 3 of every 1000 infants. Port-wine stain can appear anywhere on the body, and most are readily visible at birth. Port-wine stain can be flat or slightly raised and is usually permanent.
    Port wine stain (hemangioma)
  39. State 3 different hemangioma
    Port wine stain, strawberry and cherry. 
  40. What percentage of the population and which age group is affected by Sebaceous Gland Disorders?
    80% between age 12 and 25. 
  41. Oxidized sebaceous secretion
    Blackhead
  42. Pyogenic bacteria accumulation under the slin
    Whitehead
  43. Rare inherited disorder in which no pigment is formed
    Albinism
  44. A loss of melanin resulting in whitepatches of skin with unknown etiology and no cure. 
    Vitiligo
  45. small brown lesions occurring on the face, neck, and back of the hands due to excessive sun exposure.
    Lentigines or liver spots.
  46. Patches of darker skin develop on the face especially over the cheeks. Occurs due to hormonal changes in some women during pregnancy or from oral contraceptive use
    Melasma or chloasma.
  47. A precancerous skin condition caused by exposure to UV radiation.
    Actinic keratosis, also known as solar keratosis
  48. A benign overgrowth of epithelial cells that are the most common benign tumor in older individuals.
    Seborrheic keratosis
  49. An abnormally low body temperature resulting from prolonged exposure to cold air or water.
    Hypothermia
  50. Damage to the skin caused by freezing due to prolonged exposure to cold conditions.
    Frostbite
  51. A damage to the body’s tissues causedby heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation.
    Burn 
  52. Areas of the skin that havegrown thick in response to repeated pressureand friction and form to protect the skin.
    Corns and calluses 
  53. Cuts in the skin caused by asharp object.
    Lacerations
  54. Wearing away of the upper layer of skin by friction; they are red, raw, and painful, and bleeding is minimal.
    Abrasions, or scrapes
  55. Injuries caused by apointed object piercing or penetrating the skin,with minimal bleeding.
    Punctures
  56. When blood vessels are damaged or broken as a result of a blow to the skin. Blood leaks out of the damaged vessels into the surrounding tissues
    Contusions, or bruises.
  57. A purplish, flat bruise that occurs when blood leaks out into the top layers of skin
    Ecchymosis.
  58. A portion of the skin which has been torn away or is barely attached.
    Avulsion
  59. This cancer develops in any squamous epithelium of the body, including the skin or mucous membranes lining a natural body opening. It is a malignancy of the keratinocytes in the epidermis of people whohave been excessively exposed to the sun.
    Squamous cell carcinoma. 
  60. The most common skin cancer. A slowly growing and generally non metastasizing tumor. Begins in the lowest layer of the epidermis, called the basal cell layer.
    Basal cell carcinoma
  61. A chronic skin disease characterizedby scaling and inflammation. Affects an estimated 2% to 3% of the population world-wide. Occurs in all age groups and equally in men and women.
    Psoriasis
  62. Which is the most common type of psoriasis?
    Plaque psoriasis.
  63. An inflammatory skin disease that causes facial erythema. Affects an estimated 14 million people in the United States and over 45 million people worldwide. More frequently diagnosed in women; however, men have more severe signs and symptoms
    Rosacea
  64. Results from a vascular reaction of the skin to an allergen. It is a common skin condition that affects 15% to 25%of the population at some point in their lives.
    Urticaria, or hives
  65. A chronic inflammatory skin disorder generally affecting areas of the head and trunk where sebaceous glands are prominent.
    Seborrheic dermatitis, or chronic dandruff
  66. Give 4 forms of psoriasis
    Plaque, guttate, pustular and inverse. 
  67. An acute, contagious skin infection usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. It affects mainly infants and children. Characterized by enlarged lymph nodes and honey color or gold-yellow color crusts.
    Impetigo

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