How do you Diagnosis Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV)
What is the Treatment for Feline Immunodeficiency virus
No cure, eventually fatal
What is the definition of pharmacology?
The science that deals with the origin, nature, chemistry, effects and uses of drugs.
Where can client get pharmaceuticals?
What determines where they will purchase?
At clinic, on-line and at local pharmacy
Driven by price.
Describe the stages a new drugs goes through:
What is the average lenght of time from concept to market of a drug?
Development, research and field trials.
Up to 5 years.
Ivomec ® is an example of a ____________.
Ivermectin is the ____________ is which is generally indicated underneath within parenthesis.
Chemical name is not required on literature.
Ivermectin 5 mg/ml is the ____________.
Trade or proprietary name
generic or non-proprietary
Who is able to write a prescription in veterinarian medicine?
What is the job of an RVT pertaining to a prescription?
Only the veterinarian.
Fill, dispense, explain to client how to use the drug (dosage) and what to expect from the drug including adverse effects
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Make sure drugs are not misused, handled appropriately. Clinic must have license
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Formulation of drugs for safety and effectiveness
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Ensures animals used in research are treated fairly. Regulates the specific care, housing and treatment and ensures humane treatment.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Ensures proper disposal of expired, non-usable drugs.
What is the safe way to get rid of expired drugs?
Name 3 types of dosage forms:
List 2 most common Liquid dosage forms:
Solution & Suspension
Ampule – __ x use.
Example is ________.
1 x use
Example is a vaccine
Multi-dose – _____dose in ____pack
Multi dose in one pack
2 examples of Implants
Microchip, growth implants
Broad spectrum means
That it kills adult and larvae form of parasite
Storage and Handling of Drugs
Temperature Specifications = __° - __° F
Humidity = __ – __%
Temperature Specifications = 50° - 80° F
Humidity = 40 – 60%
Four times a day
Once a day
Three times a day - Every 8 hrs
Twice a day - Every 12 hrs
Every other day
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
product sheet from the manufacturer that contains guidelines for protective precautions, clean up procedures and first aid for accidental exposure
3. Intramuscular(IM) – most common (#1) 4. Subcutaneous(SQ) - under skin (#2)
5. Intradermal(ID) within skin 6. Oral – by mouth – send home
Cell that the specific drug targets
Something that works against the drug. Combats adverse effects
Something in the drug that helps the drug do its work
Non-receptor mediated reactions
Body changes its chemical structure and uses the part of the drug that is effective
Waste products that are filtered out through liver and kidneys
Important for food animals to make sure the drug is no longer in the body. Standard time is 1 week, but it can take up to 2 weeks
List two drugs for Gastrointestinal
List two drugs for Cardiovascular
List two drugs for Respiratory
Tetracycline, Cough suppressant (Robitussin)
List two drugs for Endocrine
Isophane Insulin, Glargine
List two drugs for Nervous System
List two drugs for Antimicrobials
List two drugs for Disinfectants/Antiseptics
List two drugs for Antiparasitics
List two drugs for Antiinflammatories
4% cows are
Ayrshire, Guernsey, Brown Swiss
2% cow that can produce 100lbs of milk
List the leukocyte counts for dogs, cats & horses:
List the hemoglobin (gm/100mL) counts for dogs, cats and horses:
List the BUN (blood-urea-nitrogen) counts for dogs, cats and horses:
The PCV (Packed cell volume/hematocrit) for a dog and for a cat.
dog = 45
Cat = 37.
What are 2 types of damage that x-rays can cause?
Somatic damage and Reproductive damage
Who discovery of X-Rays?
List the 4 benefits of Digital Radiography.
Storage on Computer,
E-mail to specialist,
Can change the size & coloring.
Castrated male pig
Young female pig
Sharp canine teeth of piglets, must be trimmed to prevent injury to the sow
Young pig less than one year of age
Device used to restrain pigs
Adult female pig
Canine teeth of hogs, need to be trimmed periodically
The sheep products are .
The #1 sheep producer in the country is
#1 in the states is .
wool, lamb and mutton
Uses of goats are
dairy, milk, meat, hide, pets, weed eaters
Original microscope was
monocular (one lens) that used reflective mirrors
List the 4 Objective Lens of a microscope:
1. Red = Low power (4X) Always start observation on lowest power.
2. Yellow = Medium power (10X)
3. Blue = High power (40X)
4. Oil Immersion is (100X)
Centrifuges are used to
Separate blood & urine and used in PCV (packed cell volume).
Name the 3 types of cells:
1. RBC/Erythrocyte should represent approximately 37-45%. Measured in millions
2. WBC/leukocytes Fine white line above the RBC. Measured in thousands
3. Platelets/thrombocytes are clotting cells. Measured in thousands
Plasma is the _____portion of the blood represents the remaining portion of blood.
fluid portion of the blood represents the remaining portion of blood.
PCV of 28% = ____
PCV of 58% = ____
Descibe the Diff Quick Method:
1. Dip dried blood smear 5 times in Fixative (light blue color)
2. Dip slide 5 times in solution 1 (eosinophilic stain)
3. Dip slide 5 times in solution 2 (basophilic stain)
4. Gently rinse slide under water faucet and allow to dry.
Examine under Oil immersion
S shaped nucleus granules in cytoplasm. Granules do not stain any color
Immature segmented neutrophils with horse shoe shaped nucleus
Red granules in cytoplasm
No granules in cytoplasm. Large cell with irregularly shaped nucleus with dark blue cytoplasm with vacuoles
Deep purple granules
Small cell with the nucleus takes up the majority of the cell with dark blue cytoplasm
When we look at a differential you count 100 cells.
Segmented neutrophils –Represents ____% of cells.
Band neutrophils –Represents ___% of cells.
Eosinophils –Represents ___% of cells.
Monocyte Represents ___% of cells.
Basophil Represents ___% of cells.
Lymphocytes Represents ___% of cells
Segmented neutrophils –Represents 60-70% of cells.
Band neutrophils –Represents 0-3% of cells.
Eosinophils –Represents 0-15% of cells.
Monocyte Represents 0-7% of cells.
Basophil Represents 0-2% of cells.
Lymphocytes Represents 20-30% of cells
Variation in size of RBC
Erythrocytes smaller than normal
Erythrocytes larger than normal
Variation in shapes of RBCs
Pale staining erythrocytes
Intense staining erythrocytes
Pyknotic, small, round remnants of the nuclear DNA. Occasionally seen in cytoplasm
Howell Jolly Body
Cytoplasmic clumps of hemoglobin. Seen in animals exposed to toxins like drugs (aspirin, phenothiazine)
What feline disease results in high mortality in young kittens?
What feline disease has close to 100% motality rate?
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Which feline disease has reproductive symptoms of infertility, abortion, fetal reabsorption and "fading" kitten syndrome?
Feline Leukemia Virus
What feline disease has no cure and is eventually fatal?
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
What are the 4 core vaccines?
Feline Respiratory Complex
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Feline Leukemia Virus
List 3 storage specifications for drugs.
Temperature Specification: 50-80F
Light Sensetivity: Leave drugs in box
What affects the expiration of drugs?
List 4 Beef cows:
Angus, Brangus, Beef Fresian, Beefmaster
List 4 Dairy Cows:
Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Jersey
Dog Rectal Temperature
Dog Respiratory Rate
Dog Average Litter Size
Dog Estrus Cycle
Cat Rectal Temperature
Cat Respiratory rate
Cat Average Litter size
Cat Estrus Cycle
15-21 days in season
2 seaons p/yr
Horse Rectal Temperature
Horse Respiratory Rate
Horse Litter Size
Horse Estrus Cycle
Cow Rectal Temperature
Cow Respiratory Rate
Cow Litter Size
Cow Estrus Cycle
Sheep/Goats Litter Size
Size of ponies
Size of miniature horse
Horses are descendents of what horse
Uses for horses
Rodeo, cattle work, therapeutic riding, police horse, agriculture work and food.