Health Implications of Obesity
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What are the four main risk factors of Obesity? (Exam)
- 1) Diabetes
- 2) Hypertension
- 3) Cardiovascular Disease
- 4) Some Cancers
What are some other conditions associated with Obesity?
- Sleep apnea
- Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
- Lower Extremity Venous Stasis Disease
- Gastro Osophageal Reflux
- Urinary Stress Incontinence
What are the health implications of being underweight?
- Possible hair loss
- Weakened Immune System
- Hormonal imbalances
- Reduced fertility
What are the main barriers to losing body fat? (Exam)
- Carb intake too high. (common culprit)
- Overall calories too high.
- Significantly undereating.
- Food allergy / intolerance.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Not hydrating adequately. (Fat is mobilised through hydrolysis)
What are the 3 main types of fat storage / distribution? (Exam)
- 1) Android / Apple shaped (men)
- 2) Gynoid / Pear shaped (women)
- 3) Ovoid (all over distribution)
What is fat distribution influenced by?
- 1) Age
- 2) Genetic inheritance
- 3) Race
- 4) Gender specific hormones.
What role do estrogens play in body fat distribution?
Estrogens which are responsible for typical female sexual characteristics will lead to a pear shape with heavier deposits on abs, thighs and legs.
What role does testosterone play in body fat distribution?
Testosterone will usually lead to more deposits on abs and upper body. (with overeating)
What are the two types of fat?
- 1) Visveral (around organs)2) Subcutaneous (under skin)
A large proportion of fat stored in the midsection is indicitive of what?
High levels of visceral fat, which poses a much greater health risk than an even (ovoid) distribution.
The waist to hip ratio is a good indicator as to whether or not there is excessive fat storage on the upper body. Simply divide the waist measurement by the hip measurement. What should it be for men / women?
- 1) Men <0.95
- 2) Women <0.80
What are people with android (apple shape) distribution at higher risk of?
- Cardiovascular diseases and hypertension
- Type 2 Diabetes
- Respiratory diseases (sleep apnea syndrome)
- Certain cancers eg. pancreatic, stomach.
What are people with Gynoid (pear shapes) at higher risk of?
Lower body joint problems.
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