Bio aging final Ch 6 genetics.txt

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rincrocci
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188238
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Bio aging final Ch 6 genetics.txt
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2012-12-09 18:38:18
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bio aging final exam genetic determinants
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bio aging final exam ch 6 - genetic determinants of aging
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  1. Alex Graham Bell
    Offspring longevity correlated to parental longevity
  2. Yuan and Jalavisto
    Showed correlation with MATERNAL longevity to offspring longevity
  3. Gavrilov and Gavrilova
    • Look @ Russian nobility to suggest MATERNAL age @ reproduction has NO EFFECT on life expectancy of offspring
    • Advanced PATERNAL age @ reproduction showed ADVERSE affect on Life-expectancy of Daughters (b/c Accumulation of X chrom damage affects XX girls, since Y is only coming from the man to the boys)
  4. Mayer and Finch and Tanzi
    Show less than 50% correlation in heritability of longevity
  5. Raymond Pearl
    • Agreed with Yaun & Jalavisto that MATERNAL longevity had effect on offspring
    • Used fruit flies and humans
  6. Sex differences and longevity
    • Humans: show FEMALES live longer vs males, possibly VIA Antioxidants from estrogen (ESTRADIOL)
    • Mice and rats: show MALES live longer vs females
  7. Moses Maimonides POISON ACCUMULATION
    Iron accumulation may cause damage to cardiovas. system and could be FREE RADICAL based
  8. Progerias and premature aging
    • 1. Downs (Trisomy 21): DOMINANT mutation affecting extracell matrix mol. Graying of hair, increase in mortality from cancer, diabetes and cardio disease. 30-50yr lifespan
    • 2. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria: loss of hair and subq fat, mortality increase from cardio disease. Death usually in early TEEN years
    • 3. Werner's syndrom: RECESSIVE mutation for DNA helicase gene on CHROM 8. Graying of hair, increase Cardio disease and cancer mortality. Increase in atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Median 47year life expectancy
  9. ApoE gene
    takes one of 3 allelic forms: E4 associated with shorter lifespan, E2 and E3 not differ w lifespan
  10. Framingham Study
    • 50 yr continuing study findings of Physiological parameter for predicting life-expectancy:
    • 1. Pulse Pressure
    • 2. Diastolic BP
    • 3. Body Mass Index
    • 4. Blood Cholesterol
    • 5. Blood Glucose levels
    • Baltimore Study also shows systolic BP, forced respitory volume can predict longevity
  11. Preferred model for studying GENETICS of aging
    • Mus musculus
    • Show hybrid vigor (increased longevity vs parental stock) which can be better for genetic studies as there is usually less homozygosity for deleterious alleles
  12. Podospora
    longevity influenced by NUCLEAR genes and envir (live better on solid vs. liquid medium)
  13. Neurosora
    Similar to podospora, with influence in longevity by nuclear genes and MITOCHONDRIAL PLASMIDS that code for antioxidant enzymes
  14. Saccharomyces cervisiae
    influence lifespan by genes: LAG1, RAS1, RAS2 and SIR gene which will inhibit replication (similar to Werner's syndrome)
  15. C. elegans
    • mutations influence lifespan of this worm
    • age-1 and daf-2 mutations upregulate antioxidant gene
    • clk regulate prouction of free radicals
  16. Dros. melanogaster
    • Arking & Rose show that selective breeding = INCREASE in lifespan
    • increase in longevity thru UPREGULATION of antioxidant genes

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