BIOL111 lecture 9

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BIOL111 lecture 9
2012-12-11 19:47:14

BIOL111 lecture 9 - fungi
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  1. What does it mean that fungi are mostly saprobes?
    They are decomposers
  2. Fungi are absorptive ___________
  3. what are the cell walls of fungi made out of?
    chitin (a polysaccharide)
  4. what is one example of a single celled fungi?
  5. what type of body plan do most fungi have?
  6. what is are hyphae?
    long branched filaments of fungi
  7. what are mycelium?
    tangles mass of hyphae in fungi
  8. why is a filamentous structure advantageous?
    provides a large surface area
  9. what are the 2 hyphal forms?
    • septate - have cross-walls
    • coenocytic - no cross-walls
  10. how are septate hyphae organized inside?
    incompletely divided into separate cell-like compartments, each compartment has pores in septa which allow movement of organelles and other materials between compartments, one nucleus in each compartment
  11. how are the hyphae of coenocytic mycelia organized inside?
    have no separation, no septa
  12. how are different hyphae highly evolved?
    can have parasitism, mutualism with plants, predation
  13. where is most of a fungus located?
    underground, the visible part is just the spore-producing reproductive structure, they are connected to each other underground by the mycelium
  14. what is the mushroom part of the fungus?
    "fruiting bodies" formed for sexual reproduction
  15. what is a fairy ring?
    when mushrooms are arranged in a circle above ground, connected by mycelium undergound, really one large organism
  16. what are spores?
    • unicellular reproductive structures; generated asexually or sexually
    • produced by meiosis
  17. what is a basidium?
    a mushroom gill
  18. what is diploid?
    2 copies of each gene (2 matching chromosomes)
  19. what is haploid?
    1 copy of each gene
  20. what is mitosis?
    • produces 2 genetically identical daughter cells
    • 1 parent cell (2n) makes 2 daughter cells (each 2n)
  21. what is meiosis?
    • produces 4 genetically different daughter cells
    • 1 parent cell (2n) makes 4 daughter cells (each n)
  22. how can fungi reproduce asexually?
    • budding
    • fission
    • spores produced in sporangia
    • conidia "naked spore"
  23. what is budding?
    organism grows a part of its main body and this new growth eventually breaks off to become a new organism
  24. what is fission?
    an organism literally splits in half, sharing important nucleic information to form a new organism
  25. what are conidia?
    asexually produced spores that are borne externally to the cells that produce them
  26. what are sporangiospores?
    produced inside specialized cells called sporangia and remain enclosed in the cells until maturity
  27. how are spores commonly dispersed?
    by wind and water
  28. what is mycorrhiza?
    • mutualistic association of fungus with plant roots
    • 2 types: ecto- and endo-
    • fungus receives carbs from plant
    • plant receives minerals and water
    • has been shown that this is actually more beneficial for the plant
  29. how long have plants and mycorrhizae had a partnership?
    scientists have found fossils of mycorrhizae older than vascular plants
  30. what are lichens?
    • a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and either a cyanobacterium or a unicellular green alga
    • the algal or cyanobacteria part is photosynthetic, fungus protects alga by retaining water and capturing minerals
    • cyanobacteria does extra thing - fix atmospheric nitrogen
  31. what are some special qualities that lichens have?
    • break down rocks to form soil
    • food for tundra animals
    • "air pollution indicators" - very sensitive to toxins in air
  32. how many species of fungi are known?
  33. what quality to animals and fungi share in the phylogenetic tree?
    • flagellum, if present, is single and posterior
    • closely related species
  34. what are synapomorphies?
    traits shared by 2 or more taxa and their most recent common ancestor, whose ancestor in turn does not possess that trait
  35. what is the synapomorhpy that fungi have?
    absorptive heterotrophy; chitin in cell walls
  36. what are the modes of asexual reproduction in fungi?
    • production of haploid spores in sporangia
    • production of haploid spores at tips of hyphae
    • binary fission
    • breakage of mycelium
  37. what is the general life cycle of fungi like?
    • most life is haploid, only zygote is diploid
    • "haplontic" life cycle
  38. what are basidiomycota?
    • club fungi
    • saprobes (decomposers)
    • ectomycorrhizae
    • rusts and smuts
  39. where are basidiomycota found?
    terrestrial and aquatic
  40. what are the fruiting bodies of basidiomycota?
    • basidocarps
    • mushrooms, puffballs, brackets
  41. how many species of basidiomycota are there?
  42. what are ascomycota?
    sac fungi
  43. what are the fruiting bodies of ascomycota?
    • contained in sacs (asci)
    • morels, truffles are examples
  44. how many species of ascomycota are there?
    • ~64,000
    • include lichens (1/2 of species), brewer's and baker's yeasts, molds and mildews (like penicillium, aspergillus, ergotism, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight)
  45. how do ascomycota produce asexually?
    conidia produced in specialized hyphae
  46. what is Geomyces destructans?
    • belongs to ascomycota group of fungi
    • cold-loving
    • causes white-nose syndrome in the little brown bat
    • 7 million bats killed so far
  47. what are glomeromycota?
    • form arbuscular mycorrhizae (endomycorrhizae with plants, tree-like, no penetration of cell membrane)
    • have no known sexual stage
    • shown to increase plant's tolerance of stress and pathogens
  48. where are glomeromycota found?
  49. how many species of glomeromycota are there?
    <200 species
  50. what kind of hyphae do glomeromycota have?
    coenocytic hyphae
  51. what are zygomycota?
    • type of fungi that have spores contained in sporangia atop specialized hyphae
    • zygotes contain many 2n nuclei
    • parasitic, saprobic
  52. where are zygomycota found?
  53. how many species of zygomycota are there?
  54. zygomycota have sporangia, but no ______
    fruting bodies
  55. zygospore is highly resistant to _______
    harsh conditions
  56. dikarya and glomeromycota are _______
    sister groups on the phylogenetic tree
  57. zygomycota and the clade of glomeromycota and dikarya are __________
    sister groups on the phylogenetic tree
  58. how many species of chytrids are there?
  59. chytrids are the only group that have ________ stages
  60. chytrids have both _____ and _____ stages
    unicellular and multicellular
  61. chytrids have no temporal separation between which 2 life cycle stages?
    plasmogamy and karyogamy
  62. what is plasmogamy?
    • stage in sexual reproduction of fungi
    • cytoplasm of 2 parent mycella fuse together without fusion of nuclei
  63. what is karyogamy?
    fusion of pronuclei of 2 cells
  64. chytrids live mainly where?
    aquatic locations
  65. chytrids are largely responsible for _____ decline
  66. what are 3 qualities that describe chytrids?
    parasitic, mutualistic, saprobic