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Anonymous
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188265
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A%P
Updated:
2012-12-09 20:18:25
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FINAL
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Final
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  1. The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia.
    • _true
    • false
  2. Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves.
    • True
    • -False
  3. Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  4. Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
    • Answer
    • accessory
    • -vestibulocochlear
    • trigeminal
    • abducens
  5. Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?
    • Answer
    • cerebral peduncles
    • -third ventricle
    • corpora quadrigemina
    • red nucleus
  6. Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  7. In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  8. What are the levers that operate at a mechanical advantage called?
    • Answer
    • -functional levers
    • dysfunctional levers
    • speed levers
    • power levers
  9. Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  10. The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.
    • Answer
    • alcohol
    • anesthetics
    • nutrients such as glucose
    • -metabolic waste such as urea
  11. The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  12. The dorsal ramus consists only of motor fibers bringing information to the spinal cord.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  13. Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
    • Answer
    • -olfactory
    • trigeminal
    • oculomotor
    • facial
  14. Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  15. The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  16. In the somatosensory system there are no third-order neurons in the cerebellum.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  17. Which of the following is true about the movement of ions across excitable living membranes?
    • Answer
    • -Some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps.
    • The bulk of the solutions inside a cell are negatively charged.
    • Ions always move actively across membranes through leakage channels.
    • Sodium gates in the membrane can open in response to electrical potential changes.
  18. Efferent nerve fibers may be described as motor nerve fibers.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  19. Tennis players often complain about pain in the arm (forearm) that swings the racquet. What muscle is usually strained under these conditions?
    • Answer
    • the anconeus
    • the triceps brachii
    • -the brachioradialis
    • the flexor digitorum profundus
  20. The meningeal branch of a spinal nerve actually reenters the vertebral canal to innervate the meninges and blood vessels.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  21. Eccentric contractions are more forceful than concentric contractions.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  22. Myelination of the nerve fibers in the central nervous system is the job of the oligodendrocyte.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  23. The chewing muscle covering the ramus of the mandible is the buccinator.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  24. The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  25. What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common?
    • Answer
    • All names reflect direction of muscle fibers.
    • -All act on the tongue.
    • All names indicate the relative size of the muscle.
    • Each acts synergistically to elevate the jaw.
  26. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events for muscle contractions?
    • Answer
    • -motor neuron action potential, neurotransmitter release, muscle cell action potential, release of calcium ions from SR, ATP-driven power stroke, sliding of myofilaments
    • muscle cell action potential, neurotransmitter release, ATP-driven power stroke, calcium ion release from SR, sliding of myofilaments
    • neurotransmitter release, muscle cell action potential, motor neuron action potential, release of calcium ions from SR, sliding of myofilaments, ATP-driven power stroke
    • neurotransmitter release, motor neuron action potential, muscle cell action potential, release of calcium ions from SR, ATP-driven power stroke
  27. Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
    • Answer
    • -in the armpit
    • in the head
    • in the cervical region
    • close to the visceral effectors they serve
  28. Select the statement that is most correct.
    • Answer
    • The dorsal root ganglion is a motor-only structure.
    • Ganglia are collections of neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord that are associated with efferent fibers.
    • The cell bodies of afferent ganglia are located in the spinal cord.
    • -Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.
  29. The adult spinal cord ends between L1 and L2.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  30. Neurons in the CNS are organized into functional groups.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  31. The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  32. First-class levers ________.
    • Answer
    • are the type found in the joints forming the ball of the foot as used in raising the body on the toes
    • are typified by tweezers or forceps
    • -in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location
    • have load at one end of the lever, fulcrum at the other, and effort applied somewhere in the middle
  33. The biceps brachii inserts on the radius.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  34. Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  35. Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  36. During vigorous exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to ________.
    • Answer
    • a strong base
    • hydrochloric acid
    • -lactic acid
    • stearic acid
  37. The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
    • Answer
    • -tenth cranial nerve
    • pelvic nerves
    • cephalic plexus
    • lumbar splanchnic nerves
  38. Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh?
    • Answer
    • soleus
    • biceps
    • -iliopsoas and rectus femoris
    • vastus medialis
  39. The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
    • Answer
    • sacral nerve
    • -vagus nerve
    • sympathetic trunk
    • phrenic nerve
  40. Transduction refers to conversion of ________.
    • Answer
    • -stimulus information to nerve impulses
    • presynaptic nerve impulses to postsynaptic nerve impulses
    • afferent impulses to efferent impulses
    • receptor energy to stimulus energy
  41. Strong stimuli cause the amplitude of action potentials generated to increase.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  42. The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  43. The main effect of the warm-up period of athletes, as the muscle contractions increase in strength, is to ________.
    • Answer
    • convert glycogen to glucose
    • increase the myoglobin content
    • tone the muscles and stabilize the joints for the workout
    • -enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems
  44. Enkephalins and endorphins are peptides that act like morphine.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  45. Regardless of type, all levers follow the same basic principle: effort farther than load from fulcrum = mechanical advantage; effort nearer than load to fulcrum = mechanical disadvantage.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  46. A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called isometric.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  47. Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?
    • Answer
    • -prefrontal cortex
    • limbic association area
    • posterior association area
    • combined primary somatosensory cortex and somatosensory association cortex
  48. The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all except the ________.
    • Answer
    • facial
    • glossopharyngeal
    • trigeminal
    • -trochlear
  49. A pair of tweezers is a good example of a second-class lever.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  50. Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
    • Answer
    • lateral geniculate of the thalamus
    • -hypothalamus
    • lateral horn of the spinal cord
    • inferior colliculus
  51. In an isotonic contraction, the muscle ________.
    • Answer
    • never converts pyruvate to lactate
    • does not change in length but increases tension
    • -changes in length and moves the "load"
    • rapidly resynthesizes creatine phosphate and ATP
  52. Which muscles is (are) contracted to exhale forcibly?
    • Answer
    • -internal intercostals and rectus abdominus
    • rectus abdominis and diaphragm
    • diaphragm alone
    • external intercostals and diaphragm
  53. Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?
    • Answer
    • lentiform nucleus
    • -substantia nigra
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus
  54. A motor neuron and all the muscle cells that it stimulates are referred to as a motor end plate.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  55. Peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  56. All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.
    • Answer
    • cingulate gyrus
    • -caudate nucleus
    • hippocampus
    • amygdaloid nucleus
  57. The possibility of some control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
    • Answer
    • stress-induced hypertension
    • -biofeedback
    • split brain studies
    • nightmares
  58. Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  59. Muscles are only able to pull, they never push.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  60. The force of muscle contraction is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  61. The corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi are visual reflex centers, whereas the inferior colliculi are auditory reflex centers.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  62. The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  63. The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  64. The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.
    • Answer
    • -consolidation
    • automatic memory
    • long-term memory
    • rehearsal
  65. The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?
    • Answer
    • radial
    • median
    • -musculocutaneous
    • ulnar
  66. In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is ________.
    • Answer
    • positively charged and contains more sodium
    • positively charged and contains less sodium
    • negatively charged and contains more sodium
    • -negatively charged and contains less sodium
  67. Adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the ________.
    • Answer
    • posterior muscle group of the thigh
    • -medial compartment of the thigh
    • lateral rotators
    • anterior compartment of the thigh
  68. During isotonic contraction, the heavier the load, the faster the velocity of contraction.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  69. The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide subunit G actin that bears active sites for myosin attachment.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  70. There are 41 pairs of spinal nerves.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  71. Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
    • Answer
    • increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
    • decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
    • decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
    • -increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
  72. Parasympathetic functions include ________.
    • Answer
    • mobilizing storage energy sources
    • allowing the body to cope with an external threat
    • -lens accommodation for close vision
    • a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
  73. The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell must be stimulated for conduction to take place.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  74. Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?
    • Answer
    • emotional
    • declarative
    • -procedural
    • motor
  75. Specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific areas called domains, whereas memory and language have overlapping domains.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  76. The warm-up period required of athletes in order to bring their muscles to peak performance is called ________.
    • Answer
    • twitch
    • incomplete tetanus
    • -treppe
    • wave summation
  77. Because the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  78. Which of the following is not true of graded potentials?
    • Answer
    • They can form on receptor endings.
    • They can be called postsynaptic potentials.
    • They are short-lived.
    • -They increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point.
  79. Cell bodies of sensory neurons may be located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  80. The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  81. Once a motor neuron has fired, all the muscle fibers in a muscle contract.
    • Answer
    • True
    • -False
  82. During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  83. NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  84. A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
    • Answer
    • -olfactory
    • accessory
    • vagus
    • glossopharyngeal
  85. The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False
  86. A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep.
    • answer
    • True
    • -False
  87. The muscle cell membrane is called the ________.
    • Answer
    • -sarcolemma
    • epimysium
    • endomysium
    • perimysium
  88. A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until ________.
    • Answer
    • proteins have been resynthesized
    • all sodium gates are closed
    • the Na ions have been pumped back into the cell
    • -the membrane potential has been reestablished
  89. When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which of the following periods?
    • Answer
    • relaxation period
    • latent period
    • fatigue period
    • -refractory period
  90. Movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to the pelvic girdle.
    • Answer
    • -True
    • False

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